4406 entries. 94 themes. Last updated December 26, 2016.

Timeline Outline ViewEra: All Eras   |   Theme: Internet & Networking


Circa 450 BCE – 420 BCE
King Darius I
The Royal Road
350 BCE
Polybius (View Larger)
The Hydraulic Telegraph
Circa 20 BCE
Augustus. (View larger)
The Cursus publicus: The Courier Service of the Roman Empire
1736Leonhard Euler Publishes the Problem of the Konigsberg Bridges: The Birth of Network Science March 2, 1791 – 1794The Optical Telegraph: Faster than a Messenger on Horseback September 27, 1825The First Publically Subscribed Passenger Railroad May 24, 1844Morse Transmits the First Message by Morse Code November 1, 1848The Railroad also Becomes an Information Distribution Network 1850 – 1858Paul Julius Reuter Founds the Reuters News Service April 3, 1860 – October 26, 1861The Pony Express: Operational for Just a Little More than One Year June 16, 1860The Origins of Network Neutrality Have Their Basis in Telegraph Networks October 24, 1861New York and San Francisco are Connected by Telegraph 1901The Earliest Fictional Account of a Universal Library, Foreshadowing the Virtual Library on the Internet November 1909An Early Sci-Fi View of the Internet and Virtual Reality January 25, 1915The First Transcontinental Telephone Call 1922
Meteorologist Lewis Fry Richardson, creator of the first dynamic model for weather prediction, proposes the creation of a “forecast factory” that would employ some 64,000 human computers sitting in tiers around the circumference of a giant globe. Each calculator would be responsible for solving differential equations related to the weather in his quadrant of the earth. From a pedestal in the center of the factory, a conductor would orchestrate this symphony of equations by shining a beam of light on areas of the globe where calculation was moving too fast or falling behind.
Imagining Using 64,000 Human Computers to Predict the Weather
April 3, 1933 – 1934Invention of the Sociogram: Some of the Earliest Graphic Depictions of Social Networks November 20, 1936 – 1938H. G. Wells and the "World Brain" 1941Borges' Universe as a Library, or Universal Library or Archive 1950The Hamming Codes 1955 – September 25, 1956The First Transatlantic Telephone Cable is Operational 1956Semantic Networks for Machine Translation November 1958 – 1960The Perceptron 1961"Compatible Time Sharing System," Precursor of Word Processing and Email 1961Arthur C. Clarke Publishes "Dial F for Frankenstein," an Inspiration for Tim Berners-Lee May 31, 1961Leonard Kleinrock Writes the First Paper on Data Networking Theory 1962Bell Labs Develops the First Digitally Multiplexed Transmission of Voice Signals April 1962Kleinrock Introduces the Concept Later Known as Packet Switching Circa June 1962Licklider & Clark Publish "Online Man-Computer Communication" October 1, 1962Licklider at the Information Processing Techniques Office, Begins Funding Research that Leads to the ARPANET 1963Foundation of Engelbart's Augmentation Research Center April 25, 1963Licklider Describes the "Intergalactic Computer Network" 1964Mathematical Theory of Data Communications 1964On Distributed Communications 1964The First Online Reservation System November 1964A Meeting Between Licklider and Lawrence G. Roberts Leads to the Original Planning for What Would Eventually Become ARPANET 1965Tom Van Vleck & Noel Morris Write One of the First Email Programs 1965Ted Nelson Coins the Terms Hypertext, Hypermedia, and Hyperlink 1965 – 2009Charles Kao Proposes Optical Fibers as a Medium for Communication October 1965Lawrence G. Roberts Does the First "Actual Network Experiment" October 1966Laurence G. Roberts Describes Networking Research at MIT December 1966Lawrence G. Roberts Begins the Design of the ARPANET 1967Donald Watts Davies Performs an Experiment in Packet Switching 1967Ted Nelson & Andries van Dam Develop the First Hypertext Editing System April 1967Wesley Clark Suggests the Use of Interface Message Processors on ARPANET Circa May – September 1967Protecting Security in a Networked Environment October 1967Donald W. Davies Introduces the Term "Packet" to Describe Discrete Blocks of Data October 1967Lawrence G. Roberts Issues the First Paper on the Design of the ARPANET April 1968Licklider & Taylor Describe Features of the Future ARPANET; Description of a Computerized Personal Assistant 1969Kenneth Thompson & Dennis Ritchie Develop UNIX, Making Open Systems Possible 1969Compuserve, the First Commercial Online Service, is Founded April 7, 1969Steve Crocker Embodies Peer to Peer Architecture (P2P) as One of the Key Concepts of the ARPANET August 30, 1969Leonard Kleinrock Establishes the First ARPANET Node and the First Network Connection October 29, 1969Charley Kline Sends the First Message Over the ARPANET December 5, 1969The First Four Nodes on the ARPANET 1970Xerox PARC is Founded 1970Norman Abramson Builds the First Packet-Switched Wireless Data Network 1970 – 1977Corning Glass Introduces Optical Fibers Enabling the Internet Backbone March 1970ARPANET Spans the U.S. 1971The Arpanet has 15 Nodes March 1971Ray Tomlinson Selects the @ in Email July 1971Lawrence Roberts Writes the First Email Management Program 1973The Plato IV System, Probably the World's First Online Community 1973"Community Memory," the First Public Computerized Bulletin Board System 1973The First International Connections to ARPANET Circa 1973Invention of the Word "Internet" March 19732000 People Use the ARPANET November 1973Coining of the Concept and Term "Datagram" 1974Systems Network Architecture is Announced 1974SGML is Invented May 5, 1974Cerf & Kahn Publish TCP: A Protocol for Packet Network Communication 1975Robert Metcalf Invents Ethernet 1975 – November 1977The First Demonstrations of TCP/IP Circa 1975The Warez Scene Emerges July 1976The First Detailed Description of Ethernet May 1, 1977The First Intentional Spam 1978The Network Nation 1978 – June 30, 2012The Minitel 1978 – 1979Fictional Vision of the Electronic Book and the Internet 1979 – 1980Compuserve 1979Robert Metcalf Founds 3Com 1980USENET: One of the First Computer Network Communications Systems 1981There are 213 Hosts on the Arpanet 1981CSNET, an Alternative to ARPANET 1982TCP/IP is Established as the Basis for ARPANET 1983ARPANET Splits into ARPANET and MILNET 1983"Dial-a-Game": the Earliest Origins of America Online (AOL) January 1, 1983ARPANET Requires TCP/IP November 1983Domain Name System November 10, 1983Coining the Term "Computer Virus" 1984USENET Introduces Moderated Newsgroups 1984There are Over 1000 Hosts on the Internet January 1, 1984Breakup of AT&T December 1984Cisco Systems is Founded March 15, 1985The First Registered Internet Domain April 1, 1985One of the First Online Communities May 1, 1985Quantum Computer Services, Precursor of AOL, Launches an Online Bulletin-Board Service 1986There are Over 5000 Hosts on ARPANET 1986 – 1987The Internet Backbone is Funded and Created 1986NSFNET Connects Five Supercomputer Centers 1986Electronic Tax Filing Begins January 1986"Brain", the First PC Virus Epidemic, Created in Lahore, Pakistan October 1986SGML Standard is Accepted 1987There are Over 10,000 Hosts on the Internet May 12, 1987Foundation of the First Commercial ISP November 1987"Toward a National Research Telecommunications Network" 1988International Standard for Computer-to-Computer Information Retrieval August 29, 1988The Unicode Universal Character Set is Introduced November 2, 1988The First Computer Worm to Attract Wide Attention 1989There are over 100,000 Hosts on the Internet 1989The First Gateways Between Private E-Mail Carriers and the Internet 1989Invention of "Buffered Media," the Basis for Webcasting March 1989An Internet-Based Hypertext System: Conceptual Origin of the World Wide Web 1990The First "Search Engine" but Not a "Web Search Engine" 1990The Electronic Frontier Foundation is Founded 1990Foundation of the Coalition for Networked Information 1990ARPANET Folds into the Internet 1990TED: Technology, Entertainment and Design 1990DynaText, an Electronic Publishing Tool November 12, 1990Berners-Lee Plans the World Wide Web November 13, 1990The First Web Page December 25, 1990The First Web Browser and Web Server 1991"Clearing the Way for Electronic Commerce" 1991The WAIS System for Searching Text is Introduced March 1991First Release of the First Web Browser August 6, 1991Berners-Lee Makes Web Server and Web Browser Software Available at No Cost September 1991The Gopher Protocol October 29, 1991One of the First U.S. Cases in Cyberspace Law December 12, 1991The First Web Server in North America 1992The First Image Posted to the Web 1992The Internet Society 1992Pioneering Collaboration of Electronic Librarianship, Journalism and Telecommunications 1992There are 50 Web Servers on the Internet June 1992Visions of a Metaverse 1993341,634 Percent Growth Rate on the Internet 1993First Library of Digital Images on the Internet 1993Perhaps the First Law Review Symposium Dedicated to Cyberspace 1993Only About 2000 People in China Use the Internet 1993W3C 1993Foundation of Teleport: the First Successful Telepresence Company 1993Estimate of Total Internet Traffic in 1993 1993There are 250 Web Servers on the Internet March 4, 1993The Mosaic Web Browser April 22, 1993The First Graphics-Based Web Browser April 30, 1993CERN Releases Rights to World Wide Web Software May 1993The First Commercial Website with the First Online Advertising June 1993The First Web Search Engine? June 1993The Beginning of Video Webcasting over the Internet November 3, 1993The Size and Growth Rate of the Internet in 1993 November 30, 1993The First Web Search Engine? 1994There are 2500 Web Servers and 10,000 Websites 1994World Wide Web Worm 1994Internet Traffic Passes 10 Trilliam Bytes per Month 1994HTTP Packets Surpass FTP Traffic 1994NSFNET Reverts to a Research Network 1994The First Demonstration of Wireless Internet Access 1994 – 1996Google Begins with a Search Engine Called "BackRub" January 1994One of the Earliest Blogs March 1994"Selling Wine without Bottles" March 12 – March 13, 1994The First Internet Cafe April 1994 – January 18, 1995Yahoo! is Founded April 4, 1994The First Company to Exploit the Economic Potential of the Web April 12, 1994Commercial Spaming Starts with the "Green Card Spam" April 20, 1994The First Full Text Web Search Engine May 3 – May 5, 1994First Internet Radio Broadcast Occurs May 25 – May 27, 1994The First International Conference on the World Wide Web June 1994 – February 1996The HTTP Cookie is Invented October 13, 1994The First Commercially Available Web Browser November 1994The Rolling Stones Present the First "Cyberspace Multicast Concert" November 7, 1994The First Traditional Radio Station to Initiate Internet Broadcasts November 10, 1994The First Internet Only Broadcast of a Live Band December 1994"From Webspace to Cyberspace": A Pioneering Cultural and Historical Work 1995The First Web Page Tagging System 1995There are Approximately 73,500 Servers; WWW is Generally Equated with the Internet March 1995Craigslist Initiates Free Online Classified Advertisements March 25, 1995The First Wiki April 1995The Apache HTTP Server is Released June 1995"Johnny Mnemonic": The First Film to Portray a Graphic Vision of Cyberspace August 9, 1995The Beginning of the "Dot-Com Bubble" November 23, 1995ABC's "World News Now" Becomes the First Television Show Broadcast over the Internet 1996Brewster Kahle Founds the Internet Archive 19961996: The First Year in Which More Email is Sent than Paper Mail 1996There are 100,000 Websites 1996A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace 1996The First Access to the Mobile Web January 2, 1996First Recorded Use of the Term, Phishing 1997The Internet2 Consortium 1997How Much Information is There? 1997The First Web Analyzer with Drill-Down and Ad-Hoc Analysis 1997 – 2002The FBI Implements Carnivore April 1997There are 1,000,000 Websites June 1997WAP is Established June 26, 1997The Internet is Entitled to the Full Protection Given to Printed Material 1998W3C Releases XML 1998Voice Over Internet Protocol is Implemented 1998The Cluetrain Manifesto 1998The First Long Distance Transmission of One Terabit per Second 1998 – August 2000The First Interactive Internet Streaming TV Network January 1998AudioNet (Broadcast.com) Begins the First Continuous Live Webcasts September 7, 1998Google is Founded September 30, 1998ICANN is Founded December 1998Internet Protocol, Version 6 (IPv6) Promulgated 1999Domain Names are Property 1999Bluetooth is Announced 1999The First Full Internet Service on Cell Phones in Japan 1999"The Internet of Things" June 1, 1999The Napster Sharing Service for MP3 Files is Launched August 1999comScore is Founded November 29, 1999The Anticybersquatting Consumer Protection Act is Enacted 2000The Size of the Internet in 2000 2000
Hairong Li
The "Journal of Interactive Advertising" Begins
February 7, 2000
A diagram of a Denial-of-Service Attack.
The First Documented Denial-of-Service Attacks
March 10, 2000
The Netscape logo
Climax of the Dot-Com Bubble
September 2000There are 20,000,000 Websites on the Internet. December 28, 2000Safeguarding Internet Security in China 2001Foundation of the Oxford Internet Institute July 2, 2001
Bram Cohen
The BitTorrent Peer-to-Peer File-Sharing Protocol
August 2001
Michael K. Bergman
Beneath the Surface of the Ocean of Data: "The Deep Web"
October 1, 2001
The DoCoMo logo
The First 3G Cellular Network
2002The Size of the Internet in 2002 2002
Jeremy Norman
"Origins of Cyberspace"
February 23, 2003
UKOLN logo
Collecting and Preserving the World Wide Web
April 28, 2003
The iTunes interface
Apple Opens the iTunes Store
July 2003
The IIPC logo
Netpreserve.org is Founded
August 2003
Niklas Zenström
Skype is Founded
2004800,000,000 People are Using the Internet May 2004There are 50,000,000 Websites on the Internet September 22, 2004
Bram Cohen
BitTorrent is Commercialized
October 5 – October 7, 2004
The Web 2.0 Conference logo
The First Web 2.0 Conference Occurs
November 2004
The Pew Internet and American Life Project logo
8,000,000 U.S. Blogs
2005Use of Internet in China in 2005 2005
The cover art for From Gutenberg to the Internet: A Sourcebook on the History of Information Technology by Jeremy Norman
"From Gutenberg to the Internet"
The FBI seal
NarusInsight Supercomputer Network Monitoring Software
February 2005
The YouTube logo
"Broadcast Yourself" : YouTube is Founded
April 14, 2005
Xiao Qiang
Development and State Control of the Chinese Internet
September 30, 2005
Olaf Sporns
Connectomes: Elements of Connections Forming the Human Brain
October 8, 2005
Google CEO Eric Schmidt
It Could Take 300 Years to Index All the World's Information
November 2, 2005
Wolfgang von Kempelen
The Amazon Mechanical Turk
November 9, 2005
Mitchell Kapor
Massively Distributed Collaboration
January 16, 2006
Gary Kremen
The Highest Price Paid for a Domain Name
February 2006
A screenshot of the D-Lib Magazine homepage
A Research Library Based on Historical Collections of the Internet Archive
February 6 – February 10, 2006
The Department of Homeland Security seal
The "Cyber Storm" War Game
March 2006
The World Wide Web History Center logo
World Wide Web History Center is Founded
May 14, 2006
Kevin Kelly
"The entire works of humankind, from the beginning of recorded history, in all languages" would amount to 50 petabytes of data.
June 2006
John Chambers
Like Teleporting in Star Trek
August 2006
The Google Apps logo, including a diagram of some of the applications offered
Google Apps are Introduced
September 2006
The cover of Le Document a la Lumiere du Numerique
"The Document in the Digital Era" by Web-Footed
November 1, 2006
The Netcraft logo
More than 100,000,000 Websites
February 2007
Kevin Kelly
Information is Expanding 10X Faster than Any Product on this Planet
February 2007
The Pew Internet and American Life Project logo
In 2007 There Were 12,000,000 U.S. Blogs
June 29, 2007
The iPhone 3G
Steve Jobs Introduces the iPhone
August 2007
Arun Kumar
The World Wide Telecom Web for Illiterate Populations
March 10 – March 14, 2008Cyber Storm II June 30, 200821.9% of the World's People Use the Internet September 2008181,277,835 Active Websites September 2008Craiglist Becomes the Leading Classified Advertising Service Worldwide September 23, 2008The First Android Phone is Introduced October 28, 2008Authors, Publishers and Google Reach "Landmark Settlement" November 4, 2008An Election Reported Interactively in Real Time November 5, 2008Change.gov is Founded December 2, 2008Over 5,000,000 Articles Posted on the HighWire Press e-Publishing Platform. January 14, 2009In 2008 China Becomes the Top User of the Internet February 2009BitTorrent was Responsible for 27-55% of All Internet Traffic April 1, 2009"Computers vs. Brains" April 7, 2009Australia to Build National Fiber Optic 100 Megabit Network May 19, 2009"Green Dam Youth Escort" June 1, 2009The WARC Format as an International File Preservation Standard June 13, 2009Piracy of Internet Filtering Software? September 30, 20091.7 Billion Internet Users October 19, 2009The Largest Study of Global Internet Traffic Since the Beginning of the Commercial Internet October 19, 2009Google Represents 6% of All Internet Traffic October 30, 2009ICANN Will Allow Web Addresses in Non-Latin Alphabets December 2009 – January 12, 2010Google's Computers in China Come Under Attack, Initiating a Review of the Company's Operations in China December 2009Google Announces Real-Time Search: "News at it Happens" January 15, 2010Exploit Code for Attacks on Google Released on the Internet March 22, 2010Google Pulls its Search Engine Out of Mainland China April 14, 2010The Library of Congress Will Preserve All "Tweets" April 27 – June 10, 2010Google Acknowledges that it Collected Wi-Fi Information Along with Cartographic and Imaging Information May 6, 2010The First Internet Addresses in Non-Latin Characters May 13, 2010Cell Phones Are Now Used More for Data than Speech July 2010 – June 2011Spam Declines from 90% of Email Traffic to Only 72.9% August 1, 2010Data on Mobile Networks is Doubling Each Year August 4, 2010"Every Two Days We Create as Much Information as We Did up to 2003" December 29, 2010Facebook is the Most Searched for and Most Visited Website in America February 3, 20114.3 Billion IP Addresses Have Been Allocated February 17, 2011Two Billion People Now Use the Internet Regularly February 17, 2011The U. S. National Broadband Map February 25, 2011Four Phases of Government Internet Surveillance and Censorship to Date March 2011 – March 2013An Interactive Map of the Internet Later Produced as an iPhone App May 2011Microsoft Acquires Skype for $8.5 Billion May 2011In May 2011 Netflix was the Largest Source of Internet Traffic in North America May 2011McKinsey Report on the Impact of the Internet on Growth, Jobs, and Prosperity June 2011The Expanding Digital Universe: Surpassing 1.8 Zetabytes June 2011FaceBook Serves a Trillion Page Views in June 2011 June 6, 2011"Physical Archiving is Still an Important Function in the Digital Era."The Internet Archive Builds an Archive of Physical Books June 10, 2011Digital Democracy is Not So Democratic June 24, 2011"Distant Reading" Versus "Close Reading" August 15, 2011 – January 2014Google Acquires Smart-Phone Maker Motorola Mobility; Sells its Hardware Division in January 2014 August 15, 2011Free Online Artificial Intelligence Course Attracts 58,000 Students January 17, 2012Major Websites Go Dark to Protest Web Censorship Legislation October 2012Online Advertising is Expected to Surpass Print Advertising, But TV Advertising Dwarfs Both October 23, 20122.5 Quintillion Bytes of Data Each Day October 29, 2012$2.6 Billion Spent on Ads on Phones and Tablets in 2012 November 4, 2012Google Has 67% of the U.S. Search Market and Collects 75% of U.S. Search Ad Dollars November 8, 2012The First Teleportation from One Macroscopic Object to Another November 20, 2012Coursera Enrolls Nearly Two Million Students from 196 Countries in Online Courses within its First Year November 29 – December 1, 2012"Anonymous" Plans to Shut Down Syrian Government Websites in Response to Countrywide Internet Blackout December 2012100% of U.S. Public Libraries Now Offer Public Access to the Internet December 19, 2012After Cell Phones With Cameras, Android Cameras- Without Cellphones- are Introduced December 28, 2012"Libraries Have Shifted from Warehouses of Books & Materials to Become Participatory Sites of Culture and Learning" January 11, 2013"Information Technology Dividends Outpace All Others" April 30, 2013On the Twentieth Anniversary CERN Restores the First Website June 2013The Size of the Digital Universe in 2013 and Prediction of its Growth Rate February 27, 2014"The Web at 25 in the U.S." by the Pew Research Internet Project February 26 – June 12, 2015The FCC Rules in Favor of Net Neutrality in the United States December 6, 2016The Influence of Social Media on the English-language Web has Surpassed that of Established Media Platforms