4406 entries. 94 themes. Last updated December 26, 2016.

Timeline Outline ViewEra: 2,500,000 BCE   |   Theme: All Themes


Circa 2,500,000 BCE – 500,000 BCE
Olduvai Gorge
The First Industrial Complex
Circa 2,400,000 BCE – 1,400,000 BCE
Fragmented part of a lower mandible (which still holds thirteen teeth, as well as unerupted wisdom teeth). (Click on image to view larger.)
"Jonny's Child": Homo habilis
Circa 1,950,000 BCE – 1,780,000 BCE
Skull of Malapa Hominin 1. MH1 also known as australopethicus sediba. (Click on image to view larger.)
A New Hominid Species is Discovered with the Help of Satellite Imagery
Circa 1,800,000 BCE
Fossil skull of D2700. (Click on image to view larger.)
The Oldest Hominin Fossils Found Outside of Africa
Circa 1,800,000 BCE – 141,000 BCE
Original fossil bones of Pithecanthropus erectus (now Homo erectus) found in Java in 1891. (Click on image to view larger.)
Pithecanthropus erectus, the First Known Specimen of Homo erectus
Circa 1,800,000 BCEThe Earliest Completely Preserved Adult Hominid Skull Circa 1,650,000 BCE – 100,000 BCE
A flint biface, discovered in Saint-Acheul, France.
Acheulean or Mode 2 Industries
Circa 1,530,000 BCE – 1,510,000 BCE
Ancient footprints at Koobi Fora. Photograph by Brian Richmond. (View Larger)
The Earliest Preserved Footprints of Our Ancestors
Circa 1,500,000 BCE
Five bone tools excavated in Swartkrans, South Africa, once used by Parantrhopus robustus for foraging purposes. Photography by Jim Di Loreto and Don Hurlbert, Smithsonian Institution. (View Larger)
Early Humans Make Bone Tools
Circa 1,500,000 BCE – 790,000 BCE
Scorched stone tools excavated in 2004 at Gesher Benot-Ya-aqov, in Israel, provide evidence for the existence of early hearths. Photograph by Chip Clark, Smithsonian Institution. (View Larger)
The Earliest Hearths
Circa 1,500,000 BCE
Fossil skull and jawbone of Turkana Boy. (Click on image to view larger.)
The Most Complete Early Human Skeleton
Circa 1,400,000 BCE
Carved flint.
The Earliest Flint Tool Found in Europe
Circa 1,200,000 BCE
The petite jaw suggests the oldest-found European was probably female.
The Earliest Human Remains from Western Europe
Circa 950,000 BCE – 780,000 BCE
Ancient stone tools discovered at the Hapisburgh excavation site, East Anglia, England. Photocredit: Parfitt et al. Nature (View Larger)
Humans May Have Lived in Britain as Early as 950,000 Years Ago
Circa 900,000 BCEThe Oldest Human Footprints in Europe, Identified Using 3D Imaging Circa 500,000 BCE
Photocredit: James Di Loreto, & Donald H. Hurlbert, Smithsonian Institution. (View Larger)
Hunting Large Animals With Spears
Circa 500,000 BCE
Example of nearly 500,000 year-old hafted spear tips from Kathu Pan 1. Photo by Jayne Wilkins. (Click on image to view larger.)
Early Humans Hunt with Stone-Tipped Spears
Circa 500,000 BCE – 430,000 BCEShell Markings by Homo Erectus May Be the Earliest Engraving Done by Humans Circa 500,000 BCEEarly Humans Process Elephant Carcasses for Food Circa 400,000 BCE – 350,000 BCE
A sample of geothite, or brown ochre. (View Larger)
The Earliest Use of Pigments
Circa 400,000 BCE
One of three spears found at Schöningen, Germany in 1995. Photocredit: Chip Clark, Smithsonian Institution. (View Larger)
The Oldest Wooden Spears
Circa 400,000 BCE
The Oldest Almost Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of a Hominin
Circa 350,000 BCE – 325,000 BCEThe Earliest Synchronic Use of Bifacial and Levallois Technology Outside Africa Suggests that the Technology Evolved Independently in Multiple Locations Circa 195,000 BCE
Scull from the River Omo. (Click on image to view larger.)
The Oldest Fossil Remains of Anatomically Modern Humans
Circa 164,000 BCE – 70,000 BCE
A silcrete nodule exhibiting the signs of experimental heat-treatment. Photocredit: Science/AAAS. (View Larger)
Early Humans Use Heat-Treated Stone for Tools
Circa 150,000 BCE – 50,000 BCE
Map showing origin and spread of language from southern Africa.  Graphic from the journal Science and The New York Times. (Click on image to view larger.)
Evidence for the Origin of Language in Southwestern Africa
Circa 132,000 BCE – 98,000 BCE
Photocredit: James Di Loreto, & Donald H. Hurlbert, Smithsonian Institution. (View Larger)
The Earliest Known Forms of Human Adornment
Circa 130,000 BCENeanderthals Produce the World's Earliest Jewelry, From Eagle Talons Circa 130,000 BCE
Stone tools found on Crete dating back over 130,000 years suggest that prehistoric civilizations took to the sea much earlier than previously thought. (view larger)
The Earliest Evidence of Sea Voyages
Circa 128,000 BCE
Svante Pääbo.
The First Complete Neanderthal Genome Sequence
Circa 104,000 BCE
A projectile point, estimated to be over 104,000 years old, uncovered in Omo Kibish, Ethipia. Photocredit: Chip Clark, Smithsonian Institution. (View Larger)
Tools for Capturing Fast or Dangerous Prey
Circa 100,000 BCE
The largest European specimen of a Wooly Mammoth.
Scientists Sequence Woolly Mammoth Genome--the First of an Extinct Animal
Circa 100,000 BCE
Pieces of ochre excavated in Qafzeh, Israel, suggesting intentional burial. Photocredit: James Di Loreto, & Donald H. Hurlbert, Smithsonian Institution. (View Larger)
The Oldest Intentional Burial
Circa 100,000 BCE
Ablone shell containing red ochre rich mixture. Image by Grethe Moell Pedersen. (Click on image to view larger.)
The Earliest Paint Workshop
88,000 BCE – 78,000 BCE
The Katanda Bone Harpoon Point. Photocredit: Smithsonian Institution.
Katanda Bone Harpoon Point
Circa 80,000 BCE
Shells of Nassarius gibbosulus, estimated to be around 82,000 years old, found in Morocco. (View Larger)
Evidence of Early Trade Routes?
Circa 75,000 BCE – 73,000 BCE
Early Attempt to Record Information or Early Art?
Circa 75,000 BCE
A silcrete stone tool from Blombos Cave in South Africa, finished with pressure flaking. (View Larger)
Tool Making by Pressure Flaking Discovered in Africa
Circa 75,000 BCE
Sediments containing ancient mattresses at Sibudu Caves.  Photo by Lyn Wadley. (Click on image to view larger.)
At Sibudu Cave, the Oldest Known Early Bedding and Use of Medicinal Plants
Circa 68,000 BCE
Stone tools (segments) with adhesive from Sibudu Cave.  Segment with red ochre visible to the naked eye as well as microscopic views of red ochre and plant gum on the tool. (Click on image to view larger.)
From Sibudu Cave: the Earliest Known Creation and Use of Compound Adhesives, Suggesting Complex Cognition
Circa 60,000 BCEComputational Micro-Biomechanical Analysis of Neanderthal's Fossilized Hyoid Bone Suggests that Neanderthals Could Speak Circa 59,000 BCEThe Earliest Sewing Needle, Made of Bone Circa 49,000 BCE – 43,000 BCE
A bone tool known as a lissoir, possibly used to prepare animal skins. Image courtesy of the Abri Peyrony and Pech de l'Azé I Projects. (Click on image to view larger.)
Neanderthals Made the First Specialized Bone Tools in Europe
Circa 48,000 BCEProof that Neanderthals Ate Vegetables as Well as Meat, in the Earliest Dated Human Faeces Circa 43,000 BCEGenome of the Oldest Human Fossil Found Outside of Africa and the Near East Shows that Humans and Neanderthals Interbred 50,000-60,000 Years Ago Circa 41,000 BCE
Cro Magnon skull. (Click on image to view larger.)
Discovery of the Cro-Magnons, the First European Early Modern Humans
Circa 40,000 BCE
Fossilized scullcap of Neanderthal 1. (Click on image to view larger.
The First Specimen to be Recognized as an Early Human Fossil
Circa 39,000 BCE
Molar found in Denisova Cave of the Altay Mountains in Southern Siberia. (Click on image to view larger.)
The Denisova Hominin, a Third Kind of Human
Circa 39,000 BCELyuba: The Best Preserved Mammoth Mummy Circa 38,000 BCE – 33,000 BCE
The Venus of Schelklingen.
The Earliest Known Examples of Figurative Art
38,000 BCE
The introduction of sturdy shoes led weaker toes.
The First Sturdy Shoes are Invented
Circa 38,000 BCEThe Oldest Known Hand Stencil & One of the Earliest Dated Figurative Depictions: Both Discovered in Maros, Sulawesi, Indonesia Circa 37,000 BCE
Detail of the
The Oldest Cave Painting
Circa 37,000 BCEPossibly the Earliest Art Created by a Neanderthal Circa 36,000 BCE
Svante Pääbo
Neanderthal Genome Reveals Interbreeding with Humans
35,000 BCE
Lembobo bone or tally stick. (Click on image to view larger.)
The Oldest Known Mathematical Artifact
Circa 33,000 BCE
A flute, found in the hills west of Ulm Germany, that is believed to be 35,000 years old.
The Earliest Musical Instruments
Circa 33,000 BCE
37mm long, 7.5 gram figurine, made from mammoth ivory is some 35,000 years old. It is one of the oldest pieces of art ever found.  Photo: Universität Tübingen. (Click on image to view larger.)
The Earliest Known Carving of a Mammoth
Circa 32,000 BCE – 30,000 BCE
Fighting rhinos and horses. Detail from one of the most important panels of Chauvet.  It contains twenty animals including rhinoceroses and horses. (Click on image to view larger.)
Probably the Earliest Extensive Collection of Paintings
Circa 32,000 BCE – 28,000 BCE
Wild flax fibers discovered in Dzudzuana Cave. (View Larger)
Making Materials from Flax Fibers
Circa 31,000 BCE
Bones of the
The First Genuine Human Fossil Skeleton Discovered by a Scientist
Circa 30,000 BCE
The 'Lion Man,' preserved in the Ulmer Museum in Ulm, Germany. (View a full-scale image.)
The Earliest Zoomorphic / Anthropomorphic Sculpture
Circa 30,000 BCEThe Advantages of Orally Transmitted Traditions Circa 30,000 BCE – 29,000 BCE
The Earliest Sculpture of a Horse
29,000 BCE – 25,000 BCE
The Venus of Dolní Věstonice. (View Larger)
The Oldest Known Ceramic Figurine
Circa 28,000 BCE – 21,000 BCE
Photocredit: Chip Clark, Smithsonian Institution. (View Larger)
Some of the Earliest Tools for Sewing Garments
25,000 BCE – 20,000 BCEThe Ishango Bone, Possibly One of the Oldest Calendars Circa 25,000 BCE
A modern replica of the Venus of Lespugue. (View Larger)
The Earliest Representation of Spun Thread
Circa 24,000 BCE – 22,000 BCE
The Venus of Willendorf. (View Larger)
The Venus of Willendorf
24,000 BCE
The oldest known portrait of a woman, sculpted from mammoth ivory during the last ice age around 26,000 years ago.  Photograph: Graeme Robertson for The Guardian. (Click on image to view larger.)
The Earliest Portrait
Circa 23,000 BCE
The Venus of Brassempouy. (View Larger)
One of the Earliest Known Realistic Representations of a Human Face
Circa 23,000 BCE – 12,000 BCE
Artist rendition of dwelling in Mezhirich, Poland, made of mammoth bones.  Source: Dolní Věstonice Museum. (Click on image to view larger.)
Perhaps the Oldest Surviving Architecture
Circa 21,000 BCE – 16,000 BCE
Fish hooks made of shell found in the Jerimalai Cave in East Timor. (Click on image to view larger.)
The Oldest Fish Hooks and Evidence of Paleolithic Offshore Fishing
Circa 20,000 BCEDiscoveries in Brazil Could Predate the Arrival of the Clovis People in the Americas Circa 18,000 BCE
Circa 18,000 BCE
Two of the 20,000 year-old pottery fragments found in the Xianrendong Cave in China.  Photo by AFP/Science/AAAS. (Click on image to view larger.)
The Oldest Known Pottery
Circa 16,000 BCE
Photocredit: Chip Clark, Smithsonian Institution. (View Larger)
The Earliest Surviving Pottery From Japan
Circa 15,300 BCE
Painting of a dun horse from Lascaux Cave. (Click on image to view larger.)
The "Sistine Chapel" of the Upper Paleolithic
Circa 14,000 BCEThe Venus Impudique: the First Discovery of a Venus Figurine Circa 13,500 BCE – 11,200Hunter-Gathers Were Living At Buttermilk Creek, Texas, as Early as 15,000 Years Ago Circa 13,000 BCEThe Lourdes Horse Circa 12,800 BCE – 8,500 BCE
Winnemucca Lake petroglyphs. (Click on image to view larger.)
North America's Earliest Rock Art
Circa 12,000 BCE
'The Sorcerer' is one name for this cryptic painting found in the Trois Frères in France by Henri Breuil. Photocredit: Encyclopaedia Britannica(View Larger)
"The Sorcerer"
Circa 12,000 BCEMore than 5000 Flint Tools Are Found in Biggar, Scotland Circa 12,000 BCEThe Oldest Map is Discovered in Abauntz Cave, Navarre, Spain Circa 11,000 BCE
Flutings at Rouffignac.  Both children and adults created cave art known as finger flutings in the French caverns of Rouffignac roughly 13,000 years ago. Credit: Jessica Cooney / Leslie van Gelder. (Click on image to view larger.)
Pre-Historic Art Created by Children at the Cave of a Hundred Mammoths, Rouffignac
Circa 11,000 BCE
Ice age carving of two reindeer swimming.  It is carved from the tip of a mammoth tusk and shows a female reindeer swimming ahead of a male reindeer. (Click in image to view larger.)
The Swimming Reindeer
Circa 10,500 BCE
Spear thrower carved as a mammoth.  Source: The British Museum. (Click on image to view larger.)
The Mammoth Spear Thrower
10,000 BCE
Perhaps the Oldest Map in the World
Circa 10,000 BCEThe Holocene Interglacial Period Begins Circa 9,500 BCE
The Göbekli Tepe, Turkist for 'Potbelly Hill,' is the oldest discovered structure for religious worship. (View Larger)
The Earliest Surviving Human-Made Place of Worship
Circa 9,300 BCE – 9,175 BCEFood Storage Preceded Plant Domestication in the Jordan Valley Circa 9,000 BCE – 8,000 BCE
Emmer wheat, one of the first domesticated crops. (View Larger)
The Eight Founding Crops of Domesticated Agriculture
Circa 9,000 BCE
Oldest known representation of two people engaged in sexual intercourse. (Click on image to view larger.)
The Ain Sakhri Lovers Figurine
Circa 9,000 BCE – 8,700 BCEGenome of Child from Clovis Culture Confirms Asian Origin of North American Native Peoples Circa 8,500 BCE – 7,200 BCEFort Rock Sandals: The Oldest Surviving Shoes Circa 8,000 BCE
In Mesopotamia Neolithic Tokens are Developed for "Concrete" Counting
Circa 7,000 BCEThe Earliest Known Fermented Beverage Circa 6,600 BCE
In China, Possibly the Earliest Attempt at Writing
Circa 6,200 BCE
A  wallpainting, located in Catal Hoyuk, that might be the earliest landscape painting yet discovered, or a map. (View Larger)
A Wallpainting that Could be a Landscape or a Map
Circa 6,000 BCE
Bos primigenius (auroch). (Click on image to view larger.)
Domestication of the Aurochs, Ancestors of Domestic Cattle
Circa 5,500 BCE – 5,000 BCE
Fragment of clay sieve from central Europe.  Credit: Mélanie Salque. (Click on image to view larger.)
The Earliest Evidence of Cheese-Making in Europe
Circa 4,700 BCE – 4,200 BCE
The remains of the settlement made of two-story houses near the town of Provadia. (Click on image to view larger.)
The Earliest Prehistoric Town in Europe
Circa 4,200 BCE
Balloy, Paris Basin. Plan of the central part of the settlement with  long houses of the Villeneuve-Saint-Germain culture superimposed by  graves and long barrows of the Cerny culture. (Click on image to view larger.)
The First Settlements in the Paris Basin
Circa 4,000 BCE
From National Geographic. (View Larger)
The Earliest Known Winery
Circa 3,750 BCEThe Earliest Precursors to Writing in Egypt are Rock Drawings Circa 3,600 BCE – 3,200 BCE
One Theory of the Origins of Egyptian Hieroglyphs
Circa 3,500 BCE
The Botai culture originated from the Akmola province of Kazakhstan, highlighted in green. (View Larger)
Horse Domestication Revolutionizes Transportation, Communication, and Warfare
Circa 3,500 BCE
The Areni-1 shoe. (View Larger)
The Oldest Known Well-Preserved Leather Shoe
Circa 3,500 BCE – 3,350 BCE
Bronocice clay pot showing wheeled cart. (Click on image to view larger.)
The Earliest Images of a Wheeled Vehicle
Circa 3,320 BCE – 3,150 BCE
Ivory tags from tomb U-j.
The Earliest Known Egyptian Writing
Circa 3,300 BCE
Model of Ötzi the Iceman in exhibit at the South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology.
The First Prehistoric Human Ever Found with his Everyday Clothing and Equipment
Circa 3,200 BCE – 2,900 BCE
Cuneiform Writing in Mesopotomia Begins at Uruk in Association with the…
Circa 3,200 BCE
One of the Earliest Surviving Examples of Narrative Relief Sculpture and…
Circa 3,200 BCE – 3,000 BCE
A side-view of the Warka Vase, before the invasion of Iraq. (View Larger)
One of the Earliest Surviving Works of Narrative Relief Sculpture, Looted…
Circa 3,200 BCEThe Oldest-Known List of Titles and Occupations 3,200 BCE
Seal impression with the name of Narmer from Tarkhan.
The Earliest Inscription Written in Hieratic
Circa 3,100 BCE – 3,050 BCE
The Word Bibliography is Derived from a Greek Word for Papyrus
Circa 3,100 BCE
A pictographic list of titles and professions in ancient Sumeria (top), with the scribe's signature on the reverse side (bottom.) (View Larger)
The Earliest Autograph Signatures
Circa 3,051 BCE
Bristlecone pinetree nickednamed Methuselah.
The Oldest Non-Clonal, Acknowledged Living Organism
Circa 3,000 BCE – 1,200 BCE
Hammurabi (1792-1750 BCE), the most famous of the early Babylonian kings. (View Larger)
Education in the Bronze Age in the Middle East
Circa 2,900 BCE
The hieroglyphic name of Hemaka, highlighted in red.
The Oldest Known Papyrus Roll - Blank
2,800 BCEPavlopetri: the Oldest Submerged Town Site Circa 2,620 BCE – 2,500 BCE"The Seated Scribe" or "Squatting Scribe" Circa 2,600 BCE
The world’s oldest datable mathematical table, from Shuruppag, c. 2600 BCE.  The first two columns contain identical lengths in descending order from 600 to 60 rods (c. 3600–360 m) and the final column contains the square area of their product.
The First Securely Datable Mathematical Table in World History
Circa 2,600 BCE – 2,500 BCEThe Wooden Panels of Hesy-Ra: Government Official, Physician, and Scribe Circa 2,500 BCE
The Abu Salbikh Tablet Lost in the Iraq War
Circa 2,500 BCE – 1,250 BCEThe Origins of Glassmaking Circa 2,500 BCE
Detail from wall of tomb of Prince Kaninisut showing scribes in seated position. Please click on image to view larger image.
The Sitting Posture of Egyptian Scribes and How They Stored Papyrus Rolls.
2,500 BCE – 2,250 BCE
Ebla Tablet
The Palace Archive of Ebla, Syria
Circa 2,500 BCEOne of the Oldest, Largest & Best Preserved Vessels from Antiquity 2,500 BCE
One of many papyrii found at Wadi al Jarf.  Thought to be the oldest known papyrii from Egypt.
The Earliest Known Egyptian Papyri
Circa 2,500 BCE
Photo of wharf at low tide, Wadi al-Jarf
The World's Oldest Harbor
Circa 2,400 BCE – 2,300 BCE
Pyramid texts located in Teti I's pyramid. (View Larger)
The Pyramid Texts: The Oldest Known Religious Texts
Circa 2,300 BCE
The Urra=hubullu, currently preserved at the Louvre Museum in Paris. (View Larger)
The Earliest Known Dictionaries
Circa 2,300 BCE – 2,000 BCEWael Sherbiny Rediscovers the Oldest & Longest Egyptian Leather Roll Circa 2,291 BCE – 2,254 BCE
MS 5106 of the Schoyen Collection, a brick printing block with a large loop handle from the period of Naram-Sîn. (View larger)
The Earliest Printing was Stamped into Soft Clay in Mesopotamia
2,112 BCE – 2,004 BCE
A reproduction of one of the oldest known Mesopotamian medical texts, dating from the Ur III period. (View Larger)
One of the Oldest Known Ancient Mesopotamian Medical Texts
2,100 BCE – 2,050 BCE
The Code of Ur-Nammu.
The Oldest Known Tablet Containing a Legal Code
2,031 BCE – 2,024 BCEThe Garsana Archive of Cuneiform Tablets is Returned to Iraq Circa 2,000 BCE
A section of the Prisse Papyrus, which is believed to be the earliest known document written on papyrus. (View Larger)
One of the Earliest Surviving Documents Written on Papyrus
Circa 2,000 BCE – 1,700 BCE
Sides A (left) and B (right) of the Phaistos Disc. (View Larger)
"The World's First Typewritten Document" - James Chadwick
Circa 2,000 BCE
Several problems from the Moscow Mathematical Papyrus. (View Larger)
The Older of the Two Best-Known Mathematical Papyri
Circa 2,000 BCEOne of the Earliest Medical and Mathematical Documents Circa 2,000 BCEThe Earliest Surviving Literary or Library Catalogues Circa 2,000 BCE – 1,800 BCEExecration Texts: Ceremonial Writing and Sympathetic Magic in Ancient Egypt Circa 2,000 BCEThe Earliest Representation of an Organized Fighting System Circa 1,980 BCE
Fragments of the Ramesseum Papyrus.
The Oldest Surviving Illustrated Papyrus Roll
Circa 1,900 BCE – 1,700 BCE
Plimpton 322 (View Larger)
The Most Famous Document of Babylonian Mathematics
Circa 1,900 BCE – 1,700 BCE
The obverse and reverse sides of YBC 7289. Images by Image by West Semitic Research.(View Larger)
Illustrating the Pythagorean Theorem and the Square Root of Two
Circa 1,900 BCE – 700 BCEProbably the Most Ancient Surviving Fermented Beverages Circa 1,900 BCE – 1,700 BCEDiscovery of the "Ark Tablet": Decoding the Story of the Flood Circa 1,800 BCE
The Oldest Known Medical Papyrus
1,800 BCE – 1,600 BCE
YBC 7287, a Babylonian mathematical tablet preserved at Yale, circa 1800-1600 B.C.E. (View Larger)
Thousands of Cuneiform Tablets Document Babylonian Mathematics
Circa 1,800 BCEProbably the Earliest Surviving Recipe for Making Beer Circa 1,800 BCE – 1,600 BCEAncient Babylonian Algorithms: The Earliest Programs Circa 1,760 BCE
The upper part of the stele containing the Code of Hammurabi. (View Larger)
The Code of Hammurabi
Circa 1,700 BCE
YBC 4644, one of three tablets in Yale's collection inscribed with ancient recipes.
The Earliest Surviving Recipes
Circa 1,700 BCE – 1,100 BCEThe Rigveda Circa 1,650 BCE
The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus. (View Larger)
“Accurate Reckoning for Inquiring into Things, and the Knowledge of All…
Circa 1,600 BCE
The Oldest Surgical Treatise
Circa 1,600 BCE
Sumerian medical tablet (2400 BC), ancient city of Nippur.  Lists 15 prescriptions used by a pharmacist.  Library of Ashurbanipal.
The Largest Surviving Medical Treatise from Ancient Mesopotamia
1,600 BCE
The Nebra Sky Disk. (View Larger)
The Nebra Sky Disk
Circa 1,550 BCE
Papyrus Ebers (View Larger)
The Most Extensive Record of Ancient Egyptian Medicine
Circa 1,550 BCE – 1450
Two Egyptian scribal palettes preserved in the British Museum. (View Larger)
Egyptian Scribal Palettes with Ink Wells and Brushes
Circa 1,550 BCE – 50 BCE
Detail from the Papyrus of Ani, showing Ani and his wife entering at left.  Please click to see complete image.
In Ancient Egypt Only the "Book of the Dead" Papyri Were Commercially Produced
Circa 1,500 BCE – 1912How the Inca Quipu System of Mathematical Record-Keeping Worked Circa 1,500 BCE
EA 5645 of the British Museum: the Words of Khakheperresoneb written on a wooden writing board. (View Larger)
A Wooden Writing Board Containing Text of the Words of Khakheperresoneb
Circa 1,500 BCEThe Proto-Sinaitic Inscriptions, the Earliest Evidence for Alphabetic Writing 1,500 BCE – 300 BCESurvey of Ancient Libraries and Archives in the Near East Circa 1,490 BCE – 1,390 BCEOne of the Earliest Known Examples of Writing in Europe Circa 1,450 BCE
An ancient Egyptian wooden drawing board inscribed with a picture of Thutmose III. It is preserved in the British Library as EA 5645. (View Larger)
Wooden Drawing Board with a figure of Thutmose III
Circa 1,450 BCE – 1953Linear B and its Decipherment: Records of Mycenaean Civilization 1,450 BCE – 1,050 BCE
The Ostracon from ‘Izbet Sartah (1200–1000 BCE) showing characters of the Proto-Canaanite alphabet.
The Proto-Canaanite Alphabet
1,417 BCE – 1,379 BCEThe Oldest Surviving Water Clock or Clepsydra Circa 1,400 BCE
Collection catalogue tablet from the Hattusas Palace Archives. Hattusa, Turkey
The Earliest Surviving Detailed Bibliographical Entries
1,391 BCE – 1,353 BCEThe Earliest Bookplates, or Ex-Libris 1,375 BCEThe Uluburun Shipwreck Circa 1,360 BCE – 1,330 BCE
ME E29785 of the British Museum: A letter from Burnaburiash, a king of the Kassite dynasty of Babylonia, to Amenhotep IV. The tablet is one of the Amarna Letters. (View Larger)
Archive of Egyptian Diplomatic Correspondence Written in the Diplomatic…
Circa 1,300 BCE – 1,000 BCE
One of the twelve tablets--of the 1200 discovered by Austen Henry Layard in Ninveh--upon which the Epic of Gilgamesh was recorded. (View larger)
The Epic of Gilgamesh, Probable Source of Aspects of Biblical and Homeric…
Circa 1,292 BCE – 1,069 BCE
A self-portrait of the scribe Sesh, arms raised in the presentation of a papyrus scroll and possibly a writing palette. Preserved in the Schoyen Collection as MS 1695. (View Larger)
Self-Portrait of an Egyptian Scribe with his Autograph Signature
Circa 1,275 BCE – 1,250 BCE
Papyrus from the Book of the Dead of Ani.
The Papyrus of Ani
1,250 BCE – 1,100 BCEAnalysis of Pollen Grains Proves that Drought Caused the Collapse of Civilization in the Soutern Levant 1,209 BCE – 1,208 BCE
The Merneptah Stele (View Larger)
The Only Ancient Egyptian Document that Mentions Israel
Circa 1,200 BCE – 1,050 BCE
The Earliest Chinese Inscriptions that are Indisputably Writing
1,200 BCE
The Chester Beatty Medical Papyrus. (View Larger)
Diseases of the Anus and Headaches
1,200 BCE – 1453
Tyrian Purple.
Imperial Purple Was First Produced by the Phoenicians
Circa 1,200 BCE – 1,045 BCE
A bronze guang, or ritualistic wine vessel, of the Shang dynasty. (View Larger)
The Earliest Chinese Inscriptions in Bronze
Circa 1,186 BCE – 1,155 BCE
A papyrus of the 'Discourse of the Gods' section of the Great Harris Papyrus, showing Ramesses III before the Triad of Thebes. (View Larger)
The Longest Known Egyptian Papyrus
Circa 1,000 BCE
The Oldest Known Evidence of the Phoenician Alphabet
Circa 1,000 BCE
A shard of ancient pottery found in the Elah Fortress, bearing Proto-Canaanite script which might compose the earliest known Hebrew inscription. (View Larger)
Possibly the Earliest Hebrew Inscription
Circa 950 BCE
The Gezer Calendar
Circa 950 BCE – 600 BCEThe Cascajal Block, the Earliest Precolumbian or Mesoamerican Writing Yet Discovered Circa 900 BCEThe "Chicago Syllabary" Circa 800 BCE
Perhaps the Oldest Surviving Tablet with a European Alphabet
Circa 800 BCEA Pulley Depicted in a Bas-Relief from Nimrud, Assyria 776 BCEThe First Olympic Games Take Place Circa 750 BCE
Standardization of the Homeric Texts Possibly Begins
Circa 750 BCE
The "Fatal Letter" in the Iliad: Introduction of Written Language to the…
Circa 750 BCEUsing Carrier Pigeons to Communicate the Results of the Olympic Games Circa 740 BCE
The ancient Greek wine jug bearing the Dipylon inscription.
One of the Two Oldest Records of the Greek Alphabet
Circa 740 BCE – 720 BCE
The Cup of Nestor. (View Larger)
One of the Two Oldest Known Examples of Writing in Greek
700 BCE
The earliest Estruscan abecedarium, the Marsiliana d'Albegna tablet, which dates to c. 700 VCE. (View Larger)
The Marsiliana Tablet Abecedarium
Circa 700 BCE – 500 BCEThe Babylonian Map of the World, the Oldest Usable Map 689 BCE – 691 BCE
The Taylor Prism, ME 91032 of the British Library. (View Larger)
The Taylor Prism and the Sennacherib Prism
668 BCE – 627 BCE
Knowledge as Power: King Ashurbanipal Forms the Earliest Systematically…
Circa 650 BCE – 600 BCEThe Constitutional Law of Dreros: The Earliest Surviving Greek Law on Stone Circa 650 BCEThe Skytale: An Early Greek Cryptographic Device Used in Warfare Circa 646 BCE
The God of Writing. . . .
604 BCE – 562 BCE
Pieter Bruegel the Elder, The tower of Babel, ca. 1556
Construction of the Etemenanki Ziggurat, Later Known as The Tower of Babel
604 BCE – 562 BCE
(View larger)
The Tower of Babel Stele
Circa 604 BCE – 562 BCEA Nebuchadnezzar II Babylonian Cylinder Sets an Auction Record Circa 600 BCE
The larger of the two silver scrolls, discovered in 1979 at Ketef Hinnom, which have been deemed the oldest suriving texts from the Hebrew bible. (View Larger)
The Oldest Surviving Texts from the Hebrew Bible
Circa 600 BCE – 50 CEThe Diolkos Paved Trackway for Ships Across the Isthmus of Corinth 600 BCE – 267 CEMore than 10,000 Stone Inscriptions Were Excavated from the Ancient Agora of Athens Circa 600 BCEAncient Shopping Lists on Ostracons Reveal Spread of Literacy at Fort in Arad, israel 586 BCE
Destruction of Solomon's Temple
Circa 570 BCE – 550 BCEOne of the Earliest Latin Inscriptions in Rome Circa 550 BCE
The Duenos Inscription
Circa 550 BCE
The Yinqueshan bamboo strips, the earliest manuscript of Sun Tzu's 'Art of War,' on exhibition in a Chinese museum. (View Larger)
The Oldest Known Work on Military Strategy
Circa 550 BCEThe Greek Origin of Monumental Roman Stone Inscriptions Circa 550 BCEA Block Printed Gold Magic Amulet from Ancient Greece or Asia Minor 539 BCE
The front side of the Cyrus Cylinder. (View Larger)
The Cyrus Cylinder, the Earliest Known Document in the History of Religious…
Circa 536 BCE
Ezra the Scribe
Ezra Introduces Public Reading of the Torah
535 BCE
Disappearance of the Ark of the Covenant and the Ten Commandments
522 BCE – 486 BCE
The Behistun Inscription. (View Larger)
The "Rosetta Stone" of Cuneiform Script
510 BCE – 500 BCEThe Earliest Surviving Athenian Decree: The Cleruchy on Salamis, Written on Stone 509 BCE – 457 BCEThe Persepolis Administrative Archives Circa 500 BCE
An Indian postage stamp, released in 2004, in honor of Pannini.
The Earliest Known Work on Descriptive Linguistics
Circa 500 BCEThe First Known Description of a Binary Numerical System Circa 500 BCE
The Roman Census
Circa 500 BCE
Paper in Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica
Circa 500 BCEThe Pyrgi Tablets: Bilingual Etruscan and Phoenician Text Inscribed in Gold Circa 450 BCE – 420 BCE
King Darius I
The Royal Road
Circa 450 BCEThe Beginnings of the Book Trade in Greece Circa 450 BCE – 420 BCEHow Herodotus Used Writing and Messages in his Histories Circa 450 BCEThe Elephantine Papyri: One of the Most Ancient Collections of Jewish Manuscripts Circa 440 BCE
Herodotus of Halicarnassus. (View Larger)
The Egyptians Reckon with Pebbles and Probably Use the Sandboard Abacus
440 BCE – 435 BCE
One of the earliest surviving images of anyone reading a papyrus roll, preserved in the Louvre. (View Larger)
One of the Earliest Images of Someone Reading a Papyrus Roll
Circa 440 BCEThe Law Code of Gortyn, Crete: The Longest Extant Ancient Greek Stone Inscription in Greece Circa 420 BCEThe Derveni Papyrus, The Earliest Surviving European Manuscript Circa 410 BCEPossible Libraries in Ancient Greece Circa 400 BCE
Arabic numerals and their equivalents in the ancient Indian Brahmi. (View Larger)
Arabic Numerals are Invented in India by the Hindus
Circa 400 BCE
The Pronomos Vase from Naples shows the performers of a Greek satyr play. (View Larger)
The Pronomos Vase: Pictorial Evidence for Theatre in Ancient Greece
Circa 400 BCEA Wooden Dove Automaton 399 BCE
A bust of Xenophon. (View Larger)
Export of Papyrus Rolls from Greece to the Euxine Coast
390 BCE – 387 BCE
A statue of Brennus by an unknown French artist. (View Larger)
The Gauls Sack Rome and Destroy Most Records
384 BCE – 321 BCE
The Library of Aristotle: Basis for the Royal Library of Alexandria?
Circa 370 BCESocrates on the Invention of Writing and the Relationship of Writing to Memory Circa 369 BCEPlato Compares Human Memory to Wax Tablets Circa 360 BCEAeneas Tacticus Describes Methods of Encoding Messages 350 BCE
Polybius (View Larger)
The Hydraulic Telegraph
Circa 350 BCE
The Acropolis stone.
The Earliest Example of Shorthand Writing
Circa 350 BCE – 250 BCEThe Lead Tablet Archives of the Athenian Cavalry Circa 350 BCE – 250 BCEWriting on Lead Tablets in Antiquity Circa 350 BCEProbably the Earliest Surviving Papyrus of a Greek Text Circa 350 BCEThe First Description of Book Scorpions, by Aristotle 343 BCE – 313 BCEThe Oldest Map Clearly Marked with Distances 335 BCEThe Beginnings of Musicology 334 BCE – 330 BCEThe Earliest Datable Appearance of the Serif in Stone Inscriptions Circa 325 BCEThe Earliest Surviving Letter Written in Greek 323 BCE – 283 BCE
Euclid's Elements: "The Founding Document of Mathematics"
Circa 300 BCE
The Royal Library of Alexandria: The Largest Collection of Recorded Information…
300 BCE – 68 CE
A column of the Copper Scroll found in Cave Three.
The Dead Sea Scrolls
Circa 300 BCE
The Salamis Tablet. (View Larger)
The Earliest Surviving Counting Board
Circa 300 BCEThe Beginnings of Latin Literature Circa 300 BCE
Several of the Guodian Chu Slips. (View Larger)
The Guodian Chu Slips: "Like the Discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls"
Circa 300 BCE
A vertical, columnar stone inscription roughly six inches long. Image: Boris Beltrán/Science. (View Larger)
The Earliest Known Examples of Maya Script
Circa 300 BCEPostal and Communication Infrastructure in Ancient India Circa 300 BCE – 350 CEThe Musawwarat Graffiti Archive Circa 298 BCE – 264 BCE
The Oxford fragment of the Parian Marble. (View Larger)
The Earliest Surviving Example of a Greek Chronological Table
Circa 280 BCE
Fragments of the Odyssey, most likely copied in Alexandria.
Philology Probably Begins at the Royal Library of Alexandria
Circa 275 BCEA "Wild" or "Eccentric" Papyrus of the Iliad Circa 250 BCE
An example of Lishu, or Clerkly Script, developed by Chinese Bureaucrats to be written with a brush.
Writing on Bamboo and Silk
Circa 250 BCE – 50 CEThe Septuagint Circa 250 BCE
A diagram of Ctesibius's water clock.
The First Truly Automatic Self-Regulatory Device
Circa 250 BCE
An edition of the Erya.(View Larger)
The Earliest Surviving Monolingual Dictionary
Circa 250 BCEThe Beginning of Latin Literature Circa 250 BCEThe Foundation of Paris 250 BCEThe First Keyboard Musical Instrument Circa 250 BCEThe Earliest Escapement Mechanism Circa 250 BCEThe Earliest Evidence of a Water-Driven Wheel Circa 250 BCEThe Only Extant Ancient Linen Book and the Longest Etruscan Text 237 BCE – 57 BCEThe Archive or Library in the Temple of Edfu Circa 225 BCEThe Conics of Apollonius of Perga 215 BCE – 210 BCE
One of three excavation pits of the Terracotta Army. (View Larger)
The Terra Cotta Army, An Early Example of Assembly Line Production
213 BCE – 206 BCE
Chinese emperor Qin Shi Huang.
Destroying Most Records of the Past Along with 460, or More, Scholars
Circa 200 BCE
A digital recreation of the Library of Alexandria.
The Origins of Bibliography
Circa 200 BCE – 200 CEThe Very Long Process of Canonization of the Hebrew Bible 197 BCE – 159 BCE
The ruins of the Library.
The Library of Pergamum (Pergamon) is Founded
196 BCE – 1822The Rosetta Stone: Key to the Decipherment of Egyptian Hieroglyphs Circa 175 BCE
A Taoist text preserved on silk and discovered in Mawangui in 1973.
The Mawangui Silk Texts
Circa 150 BCE – 100 BCE
A portrait of Hipparchus from the title page of William Cunningham's Cosmographicall Glasse (1559). (View Larger)
Invention of the Astrolabe
Circa 150 BCE – 100 BCE
The Earliest Surviving Analog Computer: the Antikythera Mechanism
Circa 150 BCE
Probably the First Trigonometric Table
Circa 150 BCE – 100 BCE
The Nash Papyrus. (View Larger)
The Nash Fragment of the Ten Commandments: The Oldest Hebrew Manuscript…
Circa 130 BCE
Ruins of the Roman Forum, where the Acta Diurna was posted.
Acta Diurna: the First Daily Gazette
Circa 100 BCE
The Isaiah Scroll. (View Larger)
The Great Isaiah Scroll, the Only Nearly Complete Biblical Book Surviving…
Circa 100 BCEThe Earliest Bookbindings Circa 90 BCEThe Earliest Treatise on Mnemonics Circa 78 BCE
The Roman Tabularium. (View Larger)
The Tabularium, Archives of Republican Rome, is Founded
Circa 70 BCE
Marcus Tullius Cicero. (View Larger)
The Book Trade in Cicero's Rome
Circa 70 BCE – 100 CEDetails of the Roman Book Trade 63 BCE
Vindolanda Tablet 122 with Latin shorthand, possibly notae Tironianae, c.90-130 CE. (View Larger)
Possibly the Earliest System of Shorthand
58 BCE – 51 BCECaesar's Gallic Wars Circa 53 BCE – 23 CEThe Earliest Bibliographical Classification System Circa 50 BCE – 25 CEThe Oldest Surviving Manuscript of Latin Poetry 46 BCE
Julius Caesar Introduces a Calendar and Plans a Great Library
43 BCEFoundation of Lugdunum (Lyon) 42 BCE – 19 BCE
Virgil Composes the Ecologues, the Georgics and the Aeneid
41 BCE
Sling-bolts, or bullets, engraved with a winged lightning-bolt on one side, and the words 'take that' on another. Circa fourth century BCE Athens. (View Larger)
Humorous Inscriptions on Lead Sling-Bolts (Sling Bullets; Slingshot) Reflect…
Circa 37 BCE
A coin depicting the profile and birth of Gaius Asinius Pollio. (View Larger)
The First-Known Public Library in Rome
Circa 30 BCEBook Trade and Libraries in the Roman Empire 30 BCE – 25 CE
The Portland Vase. Shown is the first of two scenes. (View Larger)
The Portland Vase: Classical Connoisseurship, Influence, Destruction &…
28 BCE
The Emperor Augustus Builds Two Public Libraries
Circa 20 BCE
Augustus. (View larger)
The Cursus publicus: The Courier Service of the Roman Empire
2 CE
A map of Eastern China, the territories of the Han Dynasty highlighted in dark brown.
The First Census of Which Records are Preserved
10 CE
Emperor Wang Mang.
The First Income Tax
Circa 15 CERes gestae divi Augusti: The First Person Record of the Life and Accomplishments of the First Roman Emperor Circa 25 CEThe Oldest Sculptural Group Found in France 30 CE – 100 CE
A mosaic of Jesus Christ, located in the Hagia Sophia.
Christianity Emerges
41 CE – 54 CEThe Ostia Synagogue: the Oldest Synagogue in Europe Circa 49 CE
A marble bust of Seneca preserved in the Antikensammlung Berlin. (View Larger)
Seneca Denounces Book Collectors and Even the Library of Alexandria
Circa 50 CE – 200 CE
Hero of Alexandria
Automata Invented by Heron of Alexandria
Circa 50 CE
The Oldest Surviving Substantial Collection of Buddhist Manuscripts: The…
Circa 50 CE – 250 CE
The Alexamenos Grafitto. (View Larger)
Probably the Earliest Surviving Image of the Crucifixion: A Graffito
Circa 50 CE – 1700Note-Taking Versus "Place Memory" from Antiquity through the Renaissance and Later Circa 50 CEThe Role of the "Ordinator" and "Sculptor" in Producing Roman Stone Inscriptions Circa 50 CEThe Mensa Isiaca or Bembine Table of Isis Circa 65 CE – 150 CEThe New Testament Was Probably Written over Less than a Century 66 CE – 73 CE
Destruction of the Second Temple
69 CE – 79 CERoman Inscriptions on Lead Pipes Were Made from Common Text Stamps December 69 CE – January 70 CEThe Lex de imperio Vespasiani is Cast as a Huge Bronze Plaque Circa 70 CE – 110 CE
The four authors.
Composition of the Four Gospels
Circa 70 CE – 90 CEThe Continuing Process of Canonization of the Hebrew Bible Circa 75 CE – 125 CE
The diagram, which accompanies proposition five of Book II of the Elements, is preserved in the University of Pennsylvania. (View Larger)
One of the Oldest and Most Complete Diagrams from Euclid
75 CEThe Last Known Datable Cuneiform Tablet Circa 75 CE
A fresco of a Pompein couple with stylus, wax tablets, and papyrus scroll, preserved in the Museuo Archeologico Nazionale. (View Larger)
Roman Portraits Celebrating Literacy
79 CE
An inscription depicting a contemporaneous politician. (View Larger)
Over 11,000 Wall Inscriptions Survived from Pompeii
79 CE – 2015Discoveries of Greek & Roman Papyri in the Library of the Villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum, the Only Library Preserved Intact from Graeco-Roman Times Circa 80 CE
Figure nine from Clark's 'The Care of Books,' depicting a Roman reader with his scroll. (View Larger)
The Characteristics of Roman Papyrus Rolls
Circa 80 CE
Figure eleven of Clark's 'On the Care of Books,' depicting 'pigeon holes,' the Roman equivalent of book shelves. (View Larger)
Storing Papyrus Rolls in "Pigeon-Holes"
84 CE – 86 CE
A portrait of Martial.
The First Mention of Literary Works Published in Parchment Codices
Circa 90 CEProcess of Canonizing the Old Testament Circa 100 CE – 178 CE
At Alexandria Ptolemy Writes the Almagest, the Cosmographia, and the Tetrabiblos
Circa 100 CE – 200 CE
The Romance Papyrus. (View Larger)
The Romance Papyrus
Circa 100 CE – 250 CE
The Crosby-Schoyen codex, a Coptic bible circa 300, and the oldest book in private ownership. (View Larger)
Translation of the Bible From Greek into Coptic
Circa 100 CE – 160 CE
The recto side of the Saint John Fragment. (View Larger)
The Earliest Known Fragment from a Papyrus Codex of the New Testament
Circa 100 CE – 250 CE
The fragment of De Bellis Macedonicis, the oldest suriving remains of a Latin manuscreipt written on parchment rather than papyrus. (View Larger)
The Sole Surviving Example of Roman Literary Cursive Script and the Earliest…
Circa 100 CE
Vindolanda Tablet 309, an inventory of wooden goods dispatched dispatched by and to civilians working for the military. (View Larger, with translation.)
The Oldest Surviving Handwritten Documents in Britain
Circa 100 CEFrontinus on the Water Supply of Ancient Rome Survived in Only a Single Problematic 12th Century Manuscript 105 CE
Ts'ai Lun
The Invention of Paper in China
113 CE
The Most Famous Example of Roman Square Capitals
114 CE
Probably the Greatest, and Certainly the Longest Lasting of the Roman Libraries
Circa 115 CE – 125 CEThe Library of Celsus at Ephesus Circa 125 CE
The Yale Musical Papyrus. (View Larger)
Ancient Greek Songs
Circa 125 CE
The Michigan Instrumental Papyrus. (View Larger)
Ancient Musical Notation
Circa 125 CEThe Longest Ancient Stone Inscription 130 CEThe Finest Surviving Example of Roman Monumental Lettering in Britain 132 CE – 135 CEIn the "Cave of Letters" Discovery of Papyri Recording Israel's Second Century Revolt Against Roman Rule Circa 150 CE – 450 CE
Several of the leather-bound codices of the Nag Hammadi Library. (View Larger)
The Form of the Manuscript Book Gradually Shifts from the Roll to the Codex
Circa 150 CE
Recto of papyrus containing lines from Homer's Illiad, found at Hawara. (View Larger)
The "Hawara Homer"
Circa 150 CE
The oldest known image of the Virgin Mary, located in the Cacomb of Priscilla on the Via Salaria in Rome. (View Larger)
The Earliest Known Image of the Virgin Mary
Circa 150 CEThe Earliest Runic Inscriptions Circa 150 CEA Door-to-Door Bookseller in Egypt, Second Century CE Circa 150 CECommercial and Private Book Trade in 2nd Century Egypt Circa 150 CEThe Bankes Homer: One of the Best Preserved Papyri of Homer Circa 150 CEThe Earliest European Martial Arts Manual Circa 150 CE – 1650The Earliest Diagrams Representing Human Activity: Ancient Greek Military Tactics, Including the Macedonian Phalanx, Applied as Late as the 16th and 17th Centuries Circa 160 CE
The Vimose Comb. (View Larger)
The Earliest Known Runic Inscription
Circa 170 CELucian's Diatribe on the "Ignorant Book Collector" 175 CE – 225 CE
Fragment 75. (View Larger)
The Oldest Surviving Fragment from the Gospel of Luke
Circa 175 CE – 250 CEOne of the Oldest Papyrus Codices of the New Testament Circa 175 CEPollux's Onomasticon, the Oldest Specimen of Encylopedism Surviving from Antiquity Circa 180 CE"Attic Nights" : Lack of Arrangement Makes its Own Kind of Arrangement Circa 185 CE
Insisting on Only Four Gospels
Circa 190 CEClaudius Galen Writes the First Auto-Bibliography Circa 190 CE – 1905Otlet and and La Fontaine Develop the Universal Decimal Classification 192 CEGrief at the Loss of a Personal Library: Rediscovery of a Long Lost Treatise by Galen on Books and Libraries 198 CEThe Diptych Document Format Circa 200 CE
The front side of the first Egerton papyrus fragment.
The Egerton Gospel: One of the Earliest Known Fragments of Any Gospel
Circa 200 CE – 300 CEThe Making of a Gospel Book Circa 200 CE – 300 CEAmong the Earliest News Media: Tipao Circa 200 CE – 400 CEThe Transition from the Roll to the Codex Resulted in Both Survival and Destruction of Information Circa 200 CEThe Definition of Book Includes Codices as Well as Rolls Circa 200 CE
The earliest depiction of a Roman book cabinet. (View Larger)
The Earliest Image of a Book Cabinet or Armarium
Circa 200 CE – 400 CECurse Tablets from Roman Britain 203 CE – 211 CE
A reconstruction of a portion of the Forma Urbis Romae, showing a section of the Theater of Pompey. (View Larger)
The Forma Urbis Romae, Monumental Stone Map of Ancient Rome
Circa 220 CEThe Oldest Woodblock Printed Fragments from China Circa 220 CEThe First Important Work of Rabbinic Judaism Circa 232 CE
Dura-Europos church.
The Earliest Christian House Church, With the Most Ancient Christian Paintings
Circa 234 CE – 253 CEOrigen's Hexapla: Made Possible by the Codex Form, and the First Codices to Display Information in Tabular Form Circa 240 CE – 320 CEThe Library of Lactantius, an Early Christian Author 244 CE – 256 CE
A Frescoe found in Dura Europos depicting scenes from the Book of Ester. (View Larger)
Possibly the Earliest Record of Rabbinic Texts & the Earliest Continuous…
249 CE – 251 CEThe Persecution, Imprisonment and Torture of Origen 249 CE – 251 CECertificates of Conformation to Pagan Religious Practice Circa 250 CE
The Heracles Papyrus. (View Larger)
One of the Few Scraps of Classical Literary Illustration on Papyrus
Circa 250 CEThe Earliest Papyrus Codex of the Minor Prophets Circa 250 CE
Fragment 2687 of the Oxyrhynchus Papyri, which supplements fragment 9. (View Larger)
Greek Writings on Music and Rhythm
Circa 250 CEThe Crosby-Schoyen Codex: One of the Earliest Extant Papyrus Codices, Probably from the Earliest Monastery Library Circa 250 CE – 350 CEThe Earliest Stage of Half-Uncial Circa 250 CEThe Earliest Known Greek Manuscript of the Four Gospels 251 CEDeath of Wei Tan, Discoverer of Ink February 28, 256 CEWarrant for the Arrest of a Christian: One of the Earliest Surviving Recorded Uses of the Word Christian 258 CE – 317 CEFoundation of Imperial Nanking University 270 CEThe Porphyrian Tree: The Earliest Metaphorical Tree of Knowledge 275 CE – 309 CE
A map of Israel, with Caesarea Maritima highlightd in blue. (View Larger)
Pamphilus Establishes a Library and Scriptorium and is Executed During…
Circa 275 CE
Side A of Oxyrhyncus Papyrus 2547. (View Larger)
Perhaps the Earliest Surviving Text of the Hippocratic Oath
Circa 280 CE – 340 CE
A portrait of Eusebius of Caesarea. (View Larger)
One of the Earliest, Most Widely-Used Cross-Indexing Systems
Circa 280 CE – 339 CEReconstruction of the Contents of the Library of Eusebius 284 CE – 305 CE
The Imperial Library at Nicomedia
300 CE – 350 CE
Codex IV found at Nag Hammadi. (View Larger)
Early Christian Papyrus Codices in Coptic Bindings
Circa 300 CE – 700The Transition from Papyrus to Parchment Circa 300 CEOne of the Earliest Complete Papyrus Codices on a Secular Subject 301 CE – 303 CEThe Oldest State-Built Christian Church 303 CE
Piece of the edict in Pergamonmuseum Berlin.
Costs of Professional Writing Measured by the Normal Length of a Line in a Verse of Virgil
February 24, 303 CE – 311 CE
The Diocletianic Persecution of Christians
May 19, 303 CEAs a Result of Diocletian's Edict, Police Seize Thirty-Four Biblical Manuscripts in Africa Circa 308 CE – 326 CEEusebius Introduces His Tabular Timeline System October 28, 312 CE – 315 CEThe Emperor Constantine Converts to Christianity 313 CE
The Edict of Milan Proclaims "Religious Toleration"
Circa 313 CE – 326 CEThe First Full Length Historical Narrative Written from the Christian Point of View October 18, 315 CEConstantine's Religious Toleration Does Not Apply to Jews 318 CE – 323 CEThe Role of Books in the Rule of the Earliest Christian Monasteries Circa 320 CEA Sarcophagus Showing a Greek Physician in His Library 324 CE – May 11, 330 CE
Constantinus II.
The Foundation of Constantinople
September 18, 324 CEConstantine Becomes Emperor of the Entire Roman Empire Circa 325 CE – 350 CE
A page from the Codex Vaticanus. (View Larger)
The Codex Vaticanus
Circa 325 CE – 950
Vat. gr. 218 fols. 39v-40r, two pages of the earliest surviving copy of Pappus's 'Collection.' (View Larger)
The Text of Pappus's Mathematical Collection is Based on a Single 10th…
325 CEThe First Ecumenical Council of Christianity 326 CE – 327 CEContantine Orders Fifty Luxurious Bibles for the Churches of Constantinople Circa 330 CE – 360 CE
The Codex Sinaiticus. (View Larger)
The Codex Sinaiticus
330 CE – 1453The Decline of Literacy in the Byzantine Empire 330 CE – 1453The Limitations of Book Production and Book Trade in the Byzantine Empire Circa 337 CE – 378 CE
Detail of image from De rebus bellicis showing fanciful ox-powered wheel boat.  Please click to view entire image.
De rebus bellicis, Including Images of War Machines
Circa 350 CE – 450 CEThe Third Earliest Manuscript of the Four Gospels; One of the Earliest Codices Preserved in the Western Hemisphere Circa 350 CE
The Earliest Egyptian Printed Cloth
Circa 350 CE – 475 CE
A bust of Fronto. (View Larger)
"To Fronto Belongs the Unique Distinction of Surviving Solely as the Lower…
Circa 350 CE
The recto side of P.Oslo I 4, a section of the mentioned papyrus. (View  Larger)
The Most Richly Illustrated Greek Papyrus
Circa 350 CE
Folio from Codex Vercellensis. (View Larger)
The Earliest Surviving Manuscript of the Old Latin Gospels
Circa 350 CE – 450 CEThe Oldest Surviving Manuscript of the Comedies of Terence Circa 350 CE – 825The Earliest Surviving Document of the Christian Book Trade and Stichometry Circa 350 CE
One of the four leaves of the Vergilius Augusteus that resides in the Vatican Library.(View Larger)
The Earliest of Two Surviving Examples of Codices Written Entirely in Roman…
Circa 350 CE – 650Origins of the Lateran Library, Precursor of the Vatican Library Circa 350 CEThe Earliest and Largest Part of the Surviving Text of Cicero's De re publica Was Preserved in a Palimpsest Circa 350 CE – 450 CEBiblical and Roman Law: Precursor of Footnotes; Early Uniform Pagination Circa 350 CEThe Most Widely Used Medieval Grammar 350 CE – 550One of the Earliest Treatises on Indian Medicine, Written on Birch Bark Circa 350 CEPossibly the World's First University Circa 350 CEThe Largest Papyrus Codex and the Earliest to Use Red Ink for Titles 354 CE
Title page from the Chronography of 354. (View Larger)
The Earliest Dated Codex with Full-Page Illustrations
Circa 357 CE – 1453The Imperial Library of Constantinople, About Which Very Little is Known 367 CE
Athanasius, Bishop of Alexandria. (View Larger)
New Testament Canonization in Process
Circa 375 CE – 425 CE
A page from Codex Bezae Cantabridgensis. (View Larger)
The Codex Bezae Cantabridgensis
Circa 375 CEThe Syriac Sinaiticus: The Oldest Translation of the Bible Circa 375 CEThe Obscure Origins and Meaning of the Term "Uncial" for Script Circa 380 CE
Vergilius Vaticanus
Herald of Christianity and Magus: One of the Oldest Surviving Illustrated…
Circa 380 CEJerome's Chronicon February 27, 380 CEThe Edict of Thessalonica makes Nicene Christianity the Official State Religion of the Roman Empire 384 CE
Saint Jerome. (View Larger)
St. Jerome Criticizes Luxurious Manuscripts
Circa 385 CEThe Last Major Surviving Historical Account of the Late Roman Empire Circa 390 CE
The recto side of Folio Two of Quedlinburg Itala. (View Larger)
The Oldest Surviving Illustrated Biblical Manuscript
Circa 390 CEThe Only Ancient Manual of Roman Military Instructions that Survived Intact 391 CEEarly Christians May Have Destroyed What Remained of the Alexandrian Library Because of its Pagan Contents 392 CE
The First Collection of Bio-Bibliographies
393 CE
A coin featuring the profile of Emperor Theodosious. (View Larger)
The Roman Empire Splits Permanently into Eastern and Western Halves
August 24, 394 CEThe Latest Known Inscription Written in Egyptian Hieroglyphs 396 CE – 426 CEThe Oldest Datable Uncial Manuscript, Probably Written in Hippo Regius, Africa 397 CE – 398 CEThe First Western Autobiography 397 CE – 1470Augustine on Silent Reading Circa 400 CE – 600At the Beginning of the Dark Ages Production of New Manuscripts Essentially Ceased Circa 400 CE
The Charioteer Papyrus
Circa 400 CE
Page 215 of MS G.67, depicting the acts of the apostles. (View Larger)
"The Earliest Evidence for Tooling on a Leather Bookbinding"
Circa 400 CE
The Johnson Papyrus, a fragment of an early fifth century herbal. (View Larger)
The Oldest Extant Book Illustrations of Plants
Circa 400 CEA Diptych Depicting Roman Orators Holding Papyrus Rolls Circa 400 CEThe Durability of Papyrus 400 CE – 800The "Architecture" of Early Latin Gospel Books Circa 400 CE – 600The Oldest Manuscript Collection Surviving in Pakistan and India Circa 400 CEAugustine's Six Ages of the World 406 CE
The mentioned diptych, portraying Emperor Honorius in both panels.
The Oldest Surviving Consular Diptych
410 CE – 449 CE
A map of Britannia from A Classical Atlas of Ancient Geography by Alexander G. Findlay. New York: Harper and Brothers 1849. (View Larger)
The Withdrawal of Roman Legions from Britannia Results in the End of Literacy…
August 24, 410 CE
A depiction of Alaric I by German painter Ludwig Thiersch. (View Larger)
The Goths Sack Rome
413 CEThe City of God Circa 415 CEJohn Cassian Introduces Monastic Life to Europe Circa 420 CEOne of the Few Surviving Sources for the Administrative Structure of the Late Roman Empire Circa 425 CE
A section of the Codex Ephraemi from the National Library in Paris, containing Matt. 20:16-23. (View Larger)
An Early Fifth Century Palimpsest
Circa 425 CEThe Earliest Surviving Copy of the Vulgate Gospels 426 CE – 450 CEThe Earliest Image of Codices in a Book Cabinet and Possibly the Earliest Image of a Bookbinding in Wall Art 431 CEThe Introduction of Christianity to the Irish Circa 450 CE – 550
Fragment 26v of the Cotton Genesis, depicting Abraham. (View Larger)
Fragments of a Fifth or Sixth Century Codex
Circa 450 CEThe Earliest Treasure Bookcovers: Made of Ivory or Precious Metals Circa 450 CEThe Codex Alexandrinus Circa 450 CE – 650The Church Assumes Role of Educator and Civil Service for the Tribal Kingdoms Circa 450 CE – 650The Church Replaces the Roman State as the Source of Order and Stability Circa 450 CEThe Smallest Codex Known from Antiquity Circa 450 CEThe Codex Mediceus of Virgil Circa 450 CEHesychius of Alexandria's Dictionary Survived in Only One Deeply Corrupt Renaissance Manuscript 450 CE – 1193The First Residential University Circa 450 CEOne of the Two Surviving Ancient Codices Written Entirely in Square Capitals 451 CEThe Last Victory Achieved by the Western Roman Empire 455 CE
Karl Briullov's interpretation of Geiseric's sack of 455. (View Larger)
The Second Sack of Rome
476 CE – 1500"A Bibliography of Works on Medieval Communication" Circa 490 CE – 542Composition of the Babylonian Talmud 493 CE – 508
Achilles sacrificing to Zeus from the Ambrosian Iliad. (View Larger)
The Only Illustrated Homer from Antiquity
December 25, 496 CEClovis I Converts to Roman Catholicism Circa 500 CE – 1554
A page from Corpus Agrimensorum Romanorum, depicting a perspective of a house and the boundaries of the property on which it was built. (View Larger)
One of Few Surviving "Scientific" Manuscripts from Late Antiquity
Circa 500 CE – 600
The theater at Bet She'an. (View Larger)
The Earliest, Most Significant Rabbinic Texts Are Preserved in Stone
Circa 500 CE
Example of a colophon at the end of a papyrus roll from the seventh century BC.  As is customary in ancient Greek books, the last line of the last poem (marked by the cronis in the margin) is followed by the name of the author and title (Sappho, Lyrics); the book number (beta = 2) is given in the next line, both decorated with top and bottom-lines.
The Format of the Book Evolved with the Transition to the Codex
Circa 500 CE – 650
The manuscript before and after restoration and repagination. Image from June 2010 edition of The Arts Newspaper. (View Larger)
Possibly the Earliest Surviving Illuminated Christian Manuscripts
Circa 500 CE – 1450The Longevity of Wax Tablets for Recording Written Information Circa 512
An illustration of illustration of the species 'Akoniton napellus,' folio 67v. (View Larger)
Probably the Most Beautiful of the Earliest Surviving Scientific Codices
Circa 520
A page from the Codex Argenteus. (View Larger)
The Codex Argenteus, The Primary Surviving Example of the Gothic Language
Circa 520 – 585An Archive of Papyri, Including the Oldest Surviving Poems Written by a Known Poet 524 – 525
Boethius teaching his students. (View Larger)
Thedoric Executes the Philosopher Boëthius: Beginning of the Middle Ages
Circa 524 – 1300How the Middle Ages Processed and Recycled Roman Culture 525Computus, Root of the Modern Word "Computer" 529 – 533
Justinian. (Click to view larger.)
The Code of Justinian, The Basis for Civil Law in Western Europe
St. Benedict. (Click to view larger.)
St. Benedict Founds the Abbey at Monte Cassino and Later Formulates his…
533 – 555
Littera Florentina. (Click to view larger.)
An Almost Unique Witness to the Original Justinian Digest
534The Deterioration of Libraries, Publishing and Educational Institutions in Italy by the Sixth Century Circa – 540
The Vienna Genesis. (Click to view larger.)
Considered the Oldest, Well-Preserved Illustrated Biblical Codex
541 – 542
Detail of image of Phylogenetic tree of y. pseudotuberculosis.  Y. pestis is a recently emerged clone of Y. pseudotuberculosis. Please click on link to view and resize complete image.
The Plague of Justinian
541 – May 547The Second Most Important Witness to the Text of the Latin Vulgate 550 – 650
Gundishapur, province of Khuzestan, Iran. (View Larger)
The Most Important Medical Center During 6th and 7th Centuries
Circa 550
Canon tables from Codex Brixianus. (View Larger)
The Codex Brixianus
Circa 550
Folios 23v and 24r of the Codex Petropolitanus Purpureus. (View Larger)
Written in the Imperial Scriptorium of Constantinople and Dismembered by…
Circa 550 – 650
Folio 46r from the Syriac Bible, depicting Job. (View Larger)
The Syriac Bible of Paris
Circa 550The Anglo-Saxons Conquer England Circa 550 – 750The Dark Ages for Study of the Classics on the European Continent Circa 550
The Antioch Chalice, with which the bookcovers were found.
The First Surviving Metal Bookcovers
Circa 550 – 625
Folios 33v-34r from MS. Ashmole 1431, an eleventh century copy of the Herbal of Pseudo-Apuleius. (View Larger)
The Herbal of Pseudo-Apuleius
Circa 550
Several pages from te Codex Climaci Rescriptus. (View Larger)
The Earliest Manuscript of the New Testament in Christian Palestinian Aramaic
Circa 550
Alaric II, as depicted on a Visigothic coin. (View Larger)
One of the Earliest Surviving Legal Codices
Circa 550
A color plate from Bordier's paleographic study comparing the two separated portions of one of hte earliest suriviving European papyrus codices.
Among the Earliest Surviving European Papyrus Codices
Circa 550
Detail from page of Sinope Gospel.  Please click to see entire image.  From C. de Hamel, The Book. A History of The Bible (2001)  54.
The Codex Sinopensis or Sinope Gospels
Circa 550"A Public Popularity for Books Never Existed in Antiquity" Circa 550 – 645Perhaps the First Library in Japan Circa 550The Codex Zacynthius: The Oldest Codex That Has Both Text and Commentary in Uncial Script Circa 550The Codex Purpureus Beratinus Circa 555
An illumination of Christ found in the Rossano Gospels. (Click to view larger.)
One of the Oldest Surviving Illuminated Manuscripts of the New Testament
Circa 560
An image from Codex Amiantinus. (Click to view larger.)
The Scriptorium and Library at the Vivarium
Circa 560 – 600
A page from the Cathach of St. Columba. (View Larger)
The Earliest Surviving Manuscript Written in Ireland, the Oldest Surviving…
Circa 563
Saint Columba (View Larger)
From the Monastery on the Small Island of Iona, the Conversion of Pagan…
The assassination of Alboin. (View Larger)
The Lombards Conquer Italy
570The Birth of the Prophet Muhammad Circa 575 – 599
A canon table from Harley 1775, from the British Library. (View Larger)
"Source Z" for the Latin New Testament
Circa 580 – 620
A folio from the Ashburnham Pentateuch depicting Cane and Abel. (View larger)
The Ashburnham Pentateuch
585 – 590
Saint Columbanus.
The Monastery and Library at Luxeuil is Founded and Subsequently Sacked,…
Circa 585The End of the Continuity of Late Latin Culture in Most of Italy 586
Folio 13v from the Rabula Gospels, depicting the ascension of Christ. (View larger)
Signed by the Scribe Rabbula in 586
590 – 604
The beginning of Regula pastoralis. The first three lines, in colored ink, have run or faded. (View Larger)
A Manuscript Probably Written in Pope Gregory's Scriptorium
Sui emperor Wen-ti. (View Larger)
The First Mention of Printing in China
St. Augustine of Canterbury. (View Larger)
Augustine of Canterbury Preaches to the Anglo-Saxons
Folio 129v of the St. Augustine Gospels, depicting Luke. (View Larger)
A Volume Brought by St. Augustine to England in 597
Circa 600
(View Larger)
The Earliest Western Metalwork Bookcovers
Circa 600
Tablet 3v of the Springmount Bog Tablets. (National Museum. Dublin, 1914: 2) (View Larger)
The Springmount Bog Wax Tablets
Circa 610 – 613
The name of Mohammed written in classic calligraphy. (View Larger)
The Qur'an
Circa 610 – 1200During the Middle Ages Book Production is Concentrated in Monasteries Circa 610
A wooden wax tablet with bronze stylus and eraser, originating from Egpyt circa 600. (View Larger)
During the Middle Ages Wax Tablets Are Widely Used
Saint Columbanus (View larger)
Foundation of the Monastery and Library at Bobbio
(View Larger)
Muhammad's Hijra
Circa 625
Folio 149v of the Codex Usserianus Primus.
Possibly the Earliest Surviving Irish Codex
Circa 625
Folio 90v of the Naples Dioscurides, a description of the Mandrake. (View Larger)
The Naples Dioscorides
Circa 625The Bobbio Orosius, Containing the Earliest Surviving Carpet Page in Insular Art 627
York Minster (View Larger)
The Illuminated Gospel Book as a Tool for Evangelization
A portrait of emperor Taizong of Tang on a hanging silk scroll, currently preserved in the National Palace Museum in Taipei. (View Larger)
A Library Containing "54,000 Rolls"
627 – 649The Origins of Printing in China 628
Early Advanced Mathematics
Common calligraphic representation of Muhammad's name.
The Death of Muhammad
Circa 633Excepting the Bible, Probably the Most Widely Circulated Educational Work During the Middle Ages 634
Saint Aidan (View larger)
Foundation of the Monastery on Lindisfarne
638 – 1099Muslims Occupy Jerusalem for 451 Years Circa 640Fragments of the Possibly the Oldest Surviving Manuscript of the Qur'an are Discovered at the University of Birmingham 641
Canon 22 of the Council of Nicea II (British Museum, MS Barocci 26, fol. 140b), where the top is written in minuscule and the bottom in unical.(View Larger)
Arab Conquest of Egypt Resulted in Smaller Exports of Papyrus-- A Probable…
642The Oldest Surviving Arabic Papyrus 649 – 684
A depiction of a constellation from the Dunhuang Chinese Sky. (View Larger)
The Earliest Known Star Atlas
649 – 675Possibly the Earliest Surviving Manuscript of the Qur'an Circa 650 – 960
A jiaozi from the Song Dynasty. (View Larger)
Introduction of Paper Money in China
Circa 650 – 750
This golden lion, folio 191v of the Book of Durrow, is the symbol of St. John. (View Larer)
The Book of Durrow
Circa 650
Folio 193 from the Book of Mulling. (View larger)
The Book of Mulling
Circa 650
The binding of the Stonyhurst Gospel. (View Larger)
The Earliest European Book that Survived Completely Intact in its Original…
Circa 650 – 656Codification of the Qur'an Circa 650 – 750
MS M.569 of the Pierpont Morgan Library, considered the finest surviving Coptic bookbinding. (View Larger)
The Finest Surviving Coptic Bookbinding
650 – 699The Earliest Surviving Specimens of Woodblock Printing on Paper Circa 650The Earliest Surviving Latin Single-Volume Bible Circa 653The Uthman Qur'an, One of the Earliest Surviving Manuscripts of the Qur'an 659 – 661
The Abbey at Corbie. (View Larger)
Foundation of Corbie Abbey, Renowned for its Library
662Earliest Western Reference to Indian or Arabic Numerals 664
King Oswiu (View Larger)
King Oswiu Causes Britain to Embrace the Mainstream of Christianity
One of the Qu'ran fragments found in the loft of the Great Mosque in 1972. (View Larger)
The Sana'a Palimpsest, One of the Earliest Surviving Manuscripts of the…
670Arabs Begin their Invasion of North Africa Circa 675 – 750The Codex Parisino-Petropolitanus, One of the Oldest Surviving Manuscripts of the Qur'an 677 – 1100Continuing Use of Papyrus through the Eleventh Century Circa 685 – 710
A page from the Ceolfrid Bible. (View Larger)
The Ceolfrid Bible
Circa 688 – 716
Folio 5r of Codex Amiatinus, showing Ezra. (View Larger)
The Codex Amiatinus: the Earliest Surviving Complete Bible in the Latin…
A chart of the positions used in finger notation. (View Larger)
Perhaps the Earliest Extant Treatise on Finger Reckoning
A map of the Umayyad Caliphate at its greatest extent, in 750 CE. (View Larger)
A Library Containing Manuscripts from All Parts of the Known World
Circa 690 – 751The Oldest Surviving Block Printing from Korea? 691
The Dome of the Rock at Temple Mount in Jerusalem. (View Larger)
Building the Dome of the Rock
Circa 700One of the Oldest Surviving Hebrew Fragments Written in Europe 700Traversing the Mediterranean in Twenty Days 702The First State Libraries in Japan 704 – 705The Earliest Surviving Letter Known to Have Been Written from One Englishman to Another April 30, 711 – July 19, 718
A map displaying the expansion of the Umayyad empire. (View Larger)
Foundation of the Empire of al-Andalus in Spain
713 – 734
A reproduction of the Kalyuan Za Bao, one of the earliest newspapers. (View Larger)
One of the Earliest Newspapers, Written on Silk
715 – 720
Folio 27r of the Lindisfarne Gospels. (View Larger)
Creation of the Lindisfarne Gospels
Circa 715 – 720
(View Larger)
The Earliest Image of a Scribe Using a Writing Table
The library in the Abbey of St. Gall. (View Larger)
One of the Oldest, Largest, and Most Signficant Medieval Libraries
A portrait of the Venerable Bede, by John Doyle Penrose, c. 1902.
Finger Reckoning and Computus in the Eighth Century
725 – 750
Folio 30v of the Vespasian Psalter, depicting David with musicians. (View Larger)
The Oldest English Translation of Any Portion of the Bible
Circa 725
A painting of St. Benedict drafting the Benedictine Rules, by Herman Nieg, c. 1926. The painting resides in the church of Heiligenkreuz Abbey near Baden bei Wien, Lower Austria. (View Larger)
The Earliest Surviving Copy of St. Benedict's Rules
Circa 731
Historia ecclasiastica gentis Anglorum, folio 3v of Beda Petersburgiensis, dated 746. (View Larger)
The Foundation of English Historical Writing
Charles de Steuben's 'Bataille de Poitiers,' created at sometime between 1834 and 1837, now located at Musée du château de Versailles, France.(View Larger)
Charles Martel Stops Muslim Expansion at the Battle of Tours
734Earliest Examples of Block Printed Script, Printed on Silk 736 – 760
Folio 5r of Codex Benevenatus, Jerome's letter. (View Larger)
From the Libraries of Richard Mead and Anthony Askew
750Most of the Surviving Greek Literature was Translated into Arabic by 750 Circa 750
The oldest known historiated initial, found in the St. Petersurg Bede, also known as the Leningrad Bede.
The Earliest Known Example of an Historiated Initial and One of the Earliest…
Circa 750
A portrait of St. Mark the Evangelist from folio 30v of the Book of Dimma. (View Larger)
The Book of Dimma
Circa 750Evidence of the Decline of Literacy Among the Laity in the Early Middle Ages Circa 750
Folio 11 of the Codex Aureus, inscribed in Old English. (View Larger)
The Stockholm Codex Aureus, Looted Twice by Vikings
Circa 750 – 950Early Chinese Bookbinding Techniques as Practiced in Dunhuang Circa 750 – 850The Most Lavishly Illustrated Byzantine Manuscript Circa 750 – 975The Graeco-Arabic Translation Movement in Baghdad 751
A map of the Silk Road. (View Larger)
Chinese Prisoners of War Convey Papermaking Techniques to the Arabs
A statue of Abd ar-Rahman in Almuñécar, Spain. (View Larger)
Abd ar-Rahman Conquers Cordoba
The ornate cover on the Lindau Gospels, located in the Pierpont Morgan Library. (View Larger)
One of the Great Treasures of Early Carolingian Metalwork
A modern photograph of a courtyard in the House of Wisdom, also known as the Bait al-Hikma. (View Larger)
Foundation of the House of Wisdom in Baghdad
764 – 770
One of one million pagodas commissioned by Empress Shotuku, containing Bhuddhist charms, or dhrani scrolls. (View Larger
One Million Copies Printed; The First Large Scale Mass Production
765 – 775The Oldest Surviving Book in the German Language 767
Raban Maur (left), flanked by Alcuin (middle), dedicates his work to Archbishop Otgar of Mainz (Right), taken from a Carolingian manuscript (ca. 831/40) currently residing in the Österreichische Nationalbibliothek Wien. (View Larger)
One of the Finest Libraries North of the Alps: About 100 Books
Circa 770Production of Manuscripts and Interest in Books Begins in Germany in the Last Third of the Eighth Century 772 – 781The Earliest Datable Application of Carolingian Minuscule Circa 775
A page fromt he 'Canones concillorum,' written in both unical and miniscule.(View Larger)
"The Oldest Western European Codex in Private Hands" (As of 2009)
Circa 775 – 825
The parchment on which the Veronese Riddle is written. (View Larger)
The First Sample of an Early Italian Language
Circa 775 – 825The Only Surviving Visigothic Manuscript Containing Figural Decoration Circa 776
A portrait of Brahmagupta. (View Larger)
How the Hindu Numbers Came to the Arabs
778 – 820
Folio 72v of the Codex Aureus of Lorsch, depicting Christ. (View Larger)
The Codex Aureus of Lorsch and its Dispersal
Circa 780 – 820The Contributions of the Emperor Charlemagne and the Educator Alcuin to the Carolingian Renaissance Circa 780A Book of Psalms from the Late 8th Century Found in a Bog in 2006 Circa 780 – 875About 7000 Manuscripts and Fragments Survive from the Late 8th and 9th Centuries 781 – 783The Earliest Example of the Carolingian Illumination Style 783 – 795
A facsimile of the Dagulf Psalter, also known as the Golden Psalter. (View Larger)
The First Treasure Binding Associated with its Original Codex
Circa 790
An image depicting the crucifixion of Christ, found in the Gellone Sacramentary. (View Larger)
The Gellone Sacramentary: a Masterpiece of Carolingian Manuscript Illumination
Circa 790"Very Little That Was Recopied in the Crucial Ninth Century Was Subsequently Lost" 793Papermaking is Established in Baghdad June 8, 793
The ruins of Lindisfarne Abbey. (View Larger)
Vikings Sack the Monastery and Library of Lindisfarne in the First Viking…
794 – 800Used by Charlemagne at his Coronation as Holy Roman Emperor 799Approximately 1880 Manuscript Codices or Fragments Survive of Texts Written before 800 Circa 800
The Book of Kells.
The Book of Kells
Circa 800
Folio f32v of Harley 2767, the document from which most manuscripts of De architectura were copied. (View Larger)
The Archetype of De architectura
Circa 800Some of the Earliest Library Catalogs Were Introduced in Baghdad 800 – 830
Example of Carolingian minuscule script.
Adoption of the Carolingian Minuscule Brought the Destruction of Many Late Roman Manuscripts
Circa 800
The Rök Runestone, believed to be the earliest Sweedish writing, makes reference to Ostrogothic King, Theodoric the Great.
The First Written Swedish Literature
Circa 800The Oldest Surviving Manuscript Written on Arab Paper 800 – 860"Mass Production" of Bibles at Tours: A "New" Development in Medieval Book Production Circa 810
One of the most outsanding illumated manuscripts of De luadibus sanctae crucis, preserved in the Vatican Library, depicting Christ. (View Larger)
Carmina Figurata Word Pictures
815 – 835
A page from the Uspensky Gospels. (View Larger)
The Earliest Surviving Dated Manuscript Written in Greek Minuscule
Circa 816 – 841
A portrait of Matthew from the Ebbo Gospels. (View Larger)
An Unusual, Energetic Style of Illustration
Circa 816 – 850
Page from Utretch Psalter.
The Utrecht Psalter, "The Most Frequently Studied of All Illuminated Books"
Circa 818 – 1600The Leiden Aratea Manuscript of Ancient Constellations & the First Printed Facsimile of a Medieval Illuminated Manuscript Circa 820 – 830
Leaf 2r of the Stuttgart Psalter (Folio Bible 23 in the Wurttenmbergische Landesbibliothek). (View Larger)
"A Perfect Relationship between Text and Picture"
820 – 830
The Plan of Saint Gall. (View Larger)
The Only Surviving Major Architectural Drawing from the Fall of the Roman…
Detail of folios 4v/5r of the Vaticanus Latinus 3868.  Please click to view entire image.
"The most ingenious and expressive work of narrative art known from all of Late Antiquity"
Circa 825
A portrait of al-Khwarizmi on a postage stamp from the former USSR. (View Larger)
Algorithm Invented; Introduction of the Decimal Positional Number System…
Circa 825
St. Theodore, the Studite.
Rules for the Scriptorium and the Library
825 – 850
A folio from the Bern Physiologus. (View Larger)
Medieval Natural History Bestseller
Circa 825The Oldest Surviving Manuscript on Arabic Paper Circa 825A Studio for Royal Mayan Scribes in the Ninth Century Circa 825The Earliest Surviving Text of Lucretius's De rerum natura Circa 830Origins of the Term Algebra Circa 830 – 860The "Moutier-Grandval Bible," a Masterpiece from the Scriptorium at Tours 833 – 835Inventories of Ninth Century Libraries 846
An illustration of the psalms from the Vivian Bible. (View Larger)
Lavishly Illuminated for Charles the Bald
848 – 866The Oldest Complete Dated Book in Arabic Written on Paper Circa 850Gregory the Great Writing, as Depicted in an Ivory Book Cover 850
A diagram of a 'self trimming lamp' from the Book of Ingenious devices, preserved in the 'Granger Collection' in New York. (View Larger)
The First Programmable Machine & the Earliest Known Mechanical Musical…
Circa 850
Cosmas Indicopleustes's map of the earth, from Topographia Christiana. (View Larger)
An Early Flat-Earth View of the World
Circa 850The Earliest Surviving Copy of Aristotle's Biological Works Circa 850
An icon depicting St. Photius. (View Larger)
The First Byzantine Encylopedia
Circa 850The Oldest Surviving Fragments of the Babylonian Talmud May Date from the Ninth Century Circa 850
The frontispiece of a 1709 edition of De re coquinaria. (View Larger)
Apicius's De Re Coquinaria, the Earliest Surviving Cookbook
Circa 850
A depiction of David from the Chludov Psalter. (View Larger)
A Byzantine Iconophile Psalter from the Time of the Iconoclasm
Circa 850The Oldest Western Medical Document after the Hippocratic Writings, and How it Survived the Middle Ages Circa 850 – 950
Codex Heidelbergensis 398: the single document, edited by Sigismund Gelenius, that recounts the periplus of Hanno. (View Larger)
The Periplus of Hanno the Navigator
Circa 850The Earliest Surviving Manuscript Closest to Euclid's Original Text Circa 850The Fables of Phaedrus Circa 850The First Treatise on Cryptanalysis Circa 850Perhaps the Oldest Surviving Jewish Prayer Book Circa 850 – 1050The Text of Tacitus' Annals and Histories Survived in Only Two Manuscripts Circa 850The Syriac Galen Palimpsest: New Insight into a Major Galenic Work Hidden under Liturgical Writings 859 – May 2015The al-Qarawiyyin Library, the Oldest Working Library in the World, Reopens after Restoration Circa 860 – 920The Codex Spirensis, of which Only a Single Leaf of the Original Survives 867
Vikings Destroy the Library of York Cathedral
November – December 867
Folio 241b of MS Leiden Or. 298, a manuscript of the 'Gharib al-Hadith' by Abu `Ubayd al-Qasim b. Sallam. (View Larger)
The Second Oldest Arabic Manuscript on Arabic Paper
May 11, 868
A portion of the Diamond Sutra. (View Larger)
The Earliest Surviving Dated Complete Printed Book
870The Codex Aureus of St. Emmeram Circa 875
The upper cover of the Lindau Gospels. (View Larger)
The Magnificent Upper Cover of the Lindau Gospels
October 20, 879The Earliest-Known Manuscript of the Arabian Nights Circa 880One of the Two Oldest Manuscripts of Ovid's Ars Amatoria 888
The second page of MS. d'Orville 301. (View Larger)
The Oldest Dated Manuscript of a Classical Greek Author
The initial page of the Peterborough Chronicle, marked secondarily by the librarian of the Laud collection in the Bodelian Library. The manuscript is an autograph of the monastic scribes of Peterborough, and the opening sections were likely scribed around 1150. The section displayed is prior to the First Continuation. (View Larger)
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle: The First Continuous History Written by Europeans…
Circa 890 – 900By the End of the 9th Century the Major Part of Latin Literature had Been Copied Circa 890The First Surviving Book Written Entirely in English 891Over 100 Booksellers and 30 Public Libraries in Baghdad November 895
Folio 94v of the Clarke Plato. (View Larger)
The Oldest Surviving Manuscript of Plato's Tetralogies
Circa 900Jews Adopted the Codex Around 900 Circa 900
Folio 201r of Florence, Laurentian Pluteus 74.7, depicting an orthopedic procedure involving a ladder and pulley. (View Larger)
The Earliest Surviving Illustrated Surgical Codex
Circa 900
Folio 1r of Harley MS 55, the only surviving copy of the Leechbook of Bald. The manuscript resides in the British Library. (View Larger)
One of the Oldest Medical or Scientific Treatises Written in English
927 – 928
The earliest astrolabe. (View Larger)
The Earliest Surviving Dated Astrolabe
Circa 930
The Book of Judges, chapters 1:15 to 2:1, from the Aleppo Codex. (View Larger)
The Earliest Surviving Manuscript of the Complete Hebrew Bible
Circa 930 – 970
Folio 114v of MS M 652, in the Pierpont Morgan Library. (View Larger)
The Morgan Dioscorides
930 – 960"The Junius Manuscript": An Illustrated Codex of Old English Literature 932 – 953Printing Not to Make Literature More Accessible Circa 950The Massive Byzantine Encyclopedic Dictionary Circa 950
A portrait of Luke on Folio 29v of the Book of Deer. (View Larger)
Possibly the Earliest Surviving Manuscript Produced in Scotland
Circa 950
Folio 12r of Venetus A. (View Larger)
The Most Famous, and Most Significant Manuscript of the Iliad
Circa 950 – 960
A small sampling of Aldred's gloss of the Gospels. (View Larger)
The Oldest Surviving Translation of the Gospels into English
Circa 950
Folio 30 of suppl. gr. 384, belonging to the Bibliothèque Nationale.
The Palatine Anthology of Greek Poetry
Circa 950 – 1050Block Printing in Arabic in the Tenth or Eleventh Century Circa 950 – 1050The Oldest and Most Important Complete Manuscript of the Mishna Circa 950The Earliest Recorded Book Auction Circa 950The Earliest Evidence of European Acquisition of Islamic Science Circa 950The First Western Medical School Circa 950The Archimedes Palimpsest: Recovering the Lost Mathematics of Archimedes Circa 950The Paris Psalter: The Most Famous Illuminated Byzantine Codex Circa 950A Greek Manuscript Owned and Extensively Annotated by Robert Grosseteste Circa 950Discovery of the Earliest Known Practical Example of Polyphonic Music 960 – 970
Graduale Notkeri Sequentiae Codex 121).
The Oldest Documentation of Occidental Music
Circa 960 – 990The Exeter Book: The Largest Original Collection of Old English Literature June 19, 960
An artwork from the 'Biblia de Leon,' or the Bible of St. Isidore. (View Larger)
Possible Inspiration for Picasso's Guernica?
Circa 961 – 976
A map of the Caliphate of Cordoba circa 1000CE. (View Larger)
A Vast Library at Cordoba in Al-Andalus
The third imperial seal of Otto I, featuring a frontal bust of the emperor. (View Larger)
Foundation of the Holy Roman Empire
970 – 972Foundation of Al-Azhar University 972 – 983
Point A marks Chendu, or Ch'eng-tu, China. (View Larger)
5,048 Printed Volumes Containing 130,000 Pages
Circa 975The Vercelli Book, One of the Four Old English Poetic Codices 976The Earliest Record of the Use of Arabic Numerals in Europe Circa 977 – 993
A portrait of Egbert, Archbishop of Trier, from the Codex Egberti. (View larger)
The Earliest Picture Cycle of the Life of Christ in Manuscript Illumination
Circa 977 – 993The Golden Gospels of Henry VIII 977 – 993The Golden Gospels of Henry VIII: Written by Sixteen Different Scribes Circa 980Muslim Countries Adopt Paper but Not Printing 984
A diagram of an anaclastic lens, reproduced from Ibn Sahl's manuscript, 'On Burning Mirrors and Lenses.' (View Larger)
First Discovery of the Law of Refraction
May 984Gerbert Requests a Latin Transation of an Arabic Text 988 – 990The Earliest Universal Bibliography 994
Song Dynasty Jiaozi, the world's earliest paper money.
The First Printing Encountered by European Travelers
Circa 998 – 1001
Detail from page of the The Gospels of Otto III.  Please click to view entire image.
Possibly the Most Valuable Book in the World
998 – 1030The Oldest Book in Rus', a "Hyper-Palimpsest" of Three Bound Wooden Wax Tablets Circa 1000
The first page of the Beowulf manuscript. (View Larger)
Beowulf: Known from a Unique Medieval Manuscript
Circa 1000
Gerbert d'Aurillac, scholar, teacher, tutor, and counsellor to Otto II and Pope Sylvester II. (View Larger)
The Mathematician Pope Reintroduces the Abacus and Armillary Sphere
Circa 1000
Folio 1 recto of Halper 211, considred to be one of the oldest surviving haggadahs. (View Larger)
The Oldest Surviving Haggadah(s)
Circa 1000
The reconstructions of three Norse buildings are the focal point of this archaeological site, the earliest known European settlement in the New World. The archaeological remains at the site were declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1978.
The First Conclusive Proof that Norsemen Reached North America
Circa 1000The Earliest Use of Catchwords 1007 – 1072
Playing cards existed in China before 1000 AD. Such cards would have been narrow  slips of paper, essentially dominoes with dots imitating the twenty-one  combinations possible with the throw of two dice. Paper was in fact the original  material for dominoes; wood and ivory came later.
Playing Cards: One of the Earliest Forms of Block Printing
1009 – 1010
Folios 325r and 326v of MS. Marsh 144, depicting the constellation Orion. (View Larger)
The Oldest Surviving Illustrated Manuscript Written in Arabic
Circa 1010
Cover page E, folio 474a, of the Leningrad Codex. (View Larger)
The Earliest Extant Complete Text of the Bible in Hebrew
1011 – 1021
A portrait of Ibn al_Haytham, once printed on the obverse side of an Iraqi 10-dinar bill.
Foundation of Experimental Physics, Optics, and the Science of Vision
1012 – 1021
A Qatarian postage stamp portraying Ibn al-Haitham. (View Larger)  <p>Persian scientist Abu Ali Al-Hasan <a href=
Construction of the First Camera Obscura
March 15, 1015The Scribe Sujātabhadra Writes Aṣṭasahāsrikā Prajñāparamitā on 222 Palm-Leaf Folios Circa 1020
The front of the book-shaped reliquary. (View Larger)
Book-Shaped Reliquary from the Circle of the Master of the Registrum Gregorii
Circa 1025Production of Medieval Arabic Manuscripts Circa 1025
One of the oldest Scottish books remaining in Scotland: a psalter nearly 1,000 years old. (View Larger
The Oldest Scottish Book Remaining in Scotland
Circa 1025Medieval Islamic Views of the Cosmos: The Book of Curiosities 1031Perhaps the Earliest Recycling of Paper Circa 1040 – 1050
Page from Papias' Elementarium listing words beginning with
The First Truly Recognizable Dictionary
January 14, 1040
Page from Universitätsbibliothek Heidelberg, Cod. Pal. graec. 281showing Latin writing referencing the text as being Greek musical theory. Please click on image to see full page.
The Earliest Codex Preserving Ancient Greek Music Theory
Circa 1041 – 1048
A Chinese statue of Pi Sheng. (View Larger)
The Invention of Movable Type in China
Circa 1050 – 1150
Page 74 of the Dresden Codex, depicting a great flood, flowing from the mouth of a celestial dragon. This represents the Central American notion of apocolypse. (View Larger)
The Earliest Surviving Book Written in the Americas
Circa 1050"About 100,000 handwritten Hebrew codices and their remains have survived...." 1052The Earliest Surviving Document on Paper from the Byzantine Empire 1056 – 1057The Ostomir Gospels, the Second Earliest East Slavonic Book 1057 – 1087
Pope Victor II.
The Latest Certain Dates for the Use of Papyrus
1066 – 1307More than One Million Charters Survive from the Period of Norman Rule in England September 28 – October 14, 1066
William the Conqueror, seated center, flanked by Odo, Archbishop of Canterbury, left, and Rotbert, right.  <p>William of Normandy, less well known as William the Bastard, and better known as <a href=
The Norman Conquest
1068Destruction of the 200,000 Volume Palace Library at Cairo August 26, 1071
A miniature from a 15th century French translation of Boccaccio's De Casibus Virorum Illustrium, showing Alp Arslan, second sultan of the Seljuk dynasty, humiliating Emperor Romanos IV. (View Larger)
Defeat of the Byzantine Empire by Turks
Circa 1075 – 1098
Folio 1r of the manuscript of Liber Pantegni preserved in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek. (View Larger)
The Earliest Surviving Manuscript of the Earliest Western Medical Treatise
Circa 1075 – 1225The VIDI Project: "Manuscript Innovation in the Twelfth-Century Renaissance" 1077
A scene from the Bayeux tapestry, showing Odo, Archbishop of Canterbury, on horseback. (View Larger)
The Norman Conquest Recorded on the Bayeux Tapestry
December 1085 – August 1086
The Domesday Book. (View Larger) /></p></a>  <p>William I of England, better known as <a href=
The Domesday Book, Recording the First English Census
A bust of Shen Kua. (View Larger)
Earliest Description of the Compass
The seal of the University of Bologna. (View Larger)
Foundation of the University of Bologna
Circa 1090 – 1125
A T-O design from Lambert's Liber Floridus. (View Larger)
A Medieval Encyclopedia, of which the Autograph Manuscript Survived
November 30, 1094The Earliest Surviving Manuscript of Razi's "The Comprehensive Book on Medicine" (Kitab al-Hawi fi al-tibb) March – November 1095
Henri Gourgouillon's vision of Pope Urban II, located at le Place de la Victoire in Clermont-Ferrand, France. (View Larger)
Origins of the First Crusade
Oxford University's coat of arms. (View Larger)
Origins of the University of Oxford
Circa 1100 – 1151
Xativa, Spain, highlighted in blue. (View Larger)
Papermaking Reaches the Moorish Parts of Spain
1100 – 1120
Folio 1 of Codex 2527, preserved at the Austrian National Library. (View Larger)
Medieval Handbook of Applied Arts Including Book Production
1109The Earliest Extant Document from Europe Written on Paper Circa 1110The Codex Ebnerianus and Early Manuscript Scholarship 1115
A folio from MS 2085 of the Schoyen Collection, one of the twelve extant manuscripts of the letters of Abelard and Heloise. (View Larger)
Among the Best Known Records of Early Forbidden Romantic Love
1119Earliest Record of the Use of the Compass in Navigation 1119Printing in Clay by the Typographic Principle in Germany in 1119 1122 – 1124The First Code of English Law and the Oldest Anglo-Saxon Text Circa 1125 – 1225
Offsite Link
The Universitas Guild: Early Origin of What We Characterize as a University
1134The Oldest University in Spain 1143
Peter the Venerable.
The First Translation of the Qur'an into a Western Language
June 14, 1144
The west exterior facade of the Abbey of Saint Denis, considered by historians to be the firs building in the Gothic style. (View Larger)
The First Building in the Gothic Style
At Martorana in Palermo, Italy, a mural depicting the divine coronation of Roger II. (View Larger)
King Roger Bans the Use of Paper
Circa 1150 – 1175
Book X Chapters 6-7 of Gerard de Cremona's thirteenth century translation of Ptolemy's Almagest. (View Larger)
The Leading Translator from the Arabic
Circa 1150
An illustration of a naval battle in the Madrid Skylitzes, showing Greek marine flamethrower technology. (View Larger)
The Madrid Skylitzes: the Only Surviving Illustrated Manuscript of a Greek…
Circa 1150
(See Larger)
Twelfth Century Images of the Processes in Book Production
Circa 1150The Design and Operation of Medieval Libraries Circa 1150Originator of the Concept of Mathematical Function 1150The First Paper Mill in Al-Andalus Circa 1150
A heavily glossed manuscript of Libri Quattuor Sententiarum by Peter Lombard, whose usage of margin notes for citations is considered by some to be the direct antecedent of modern scholarly footnotes. (View Larger)
"Ancestor of the Modern Scholarly Apparatus of Footnotes"
Circa 1150
Detail of page from the Codex Calixtinus–or Liber Sancti Jacobi / Book of Saint James Calixtinus–or Liber Sancti Jacobi / Book of Saint JamesCodex Calixtinus–or Liber Sancti Jacobi / Book of Saint James.
An Illuminated Medieval Travel Guide and Music Compendium
Circa 1150Perhaps the Oldest Complete Torah Scroll Circa 1150 – 1250Jewish Bodies Found in Medieval Well in Norwich, England 1154The First Use of Paper in Italy Circa 1155 – 1170The Eadwine Psalter, Masterpiece of Book Production in the Twelfth Century Renaissance 1167
A 16th century portrait of King Henry II of England, by an unknown artist.
Henry II Forbids English Students to Study at Paris
1167 – 1185
Plate 8 of the Englehardt facsimile of the Hortus delicarum. In the centermost circle, Philosophy rests upon a queenly throne, holding a banner that says 'All wisdom comes from God, only the wise can do what they want.' Directly below sit Socrates and Plato, at abutting desks. In the surrounding orbs stand the Seven Liberal arts: grammar, rhetoric, dialectics, music, arithmetic, geometry, and astronomy. (View Larger)
Written and Illuminated by the Nun Herrad of Landsberg
Circa 1170Origins of the Paris Book Trade Circa 1170
Folio 7v of the Hungarian Psalter: a miniature depicting, on top, the creation of Adam, and, on bottom, the temptation of Adam by Eve. (View Larger)
The Hunterian Psalter
1170 – 1180Mishneh Torah, Signed by Maimonides 1175Norman Crusaders Take Manuscripts as Spoils of War Circa 1175 – 1250Simultaneous Appearance in Medieval Europe of the College, the Recursive Argument Method, Translations of Scientific Works from the Arabic, & Translations of Aristotle's Works 1180 – 1575Factors Influencing the Development of the French Language, Literature, and Book Production 1180The First College Founded in Western Europe Circa 1185 – 1190
T-S_10Ka4.1,r: a page from an early autograph draft of Maimonides's 'Guide for the Perplexed.' (View Larger)
Early Autograph Draft of Maimonides' Guide for the Perplexed
Circa 1185 – 1210Limoges Enamel Book Cover Plaque Circa 1190 – 1290The Emergence of Concordances and Subject Indexes 1190 – 1215Layamon's "Brut", the Earliest Source of the Legends of King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table March 16, 1190
Clifford's Tower. (View Larger)
Massacre of the Jewish Community of York, England Reflected in the Survival…
July 3, 1194Foundation of the Trésor des Chartes 1196
The Coronation of Henry IV of Liber ad honorem Augusi sive de rebus Siculis, folio 105r of MS. 120 II, Berne Municipal Library. (View Larger)
A Graphic Portrayal of 12th Century Life in Italy and Sicily
From one of the registers of Innocent III for the period between 1198 and 1120. ASV, Reg. Vat. 5, f. 84v (detail). (View Larger)
Foundation of the Vatican Registers
Circa 1200
A scence from the long scroll 'Along the River During Qing Ming Festival,' in which a fifteen column saunpan is visible next to the account book and doctor's prescriptions. (View Larger)
The Suanpan
Circa 1200
Detail of image depicting a monk at work in a medieval scriptorium (Lacroix).  Please click to view entire image.
Beginnings of an Active Book Trade in Europe Outside of Monasteries
Circa 1200Private Libraries in the Muslim World, Destroyed or Plundered by Crusaders Circa 1200 – 1450Knowledge of Greek and Greek Texts During the Middle Ages Circa 1200Postal System within the Mongol Empire and China Circa 1200Production of Medieval Manuscript Codices: a Video 1202
Folio 124r of the Codex magliabechiano, a manuscript of Liber Abaci preserved in the Biblioteca Nazionale di Firenze. (View Larger)
Fibonacci Introduces Arabic Numerals to the European Public and Describes…
1206The First Recorded Designs of a Programmable Automaton 1206
A depiction of the Castle Water Clock from al-Jazari's 'Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices.' This manuscript is preserved at the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston. (View Larger)
al-Jazari's Clocks: Perhaps the Earliest Programmable Analog Computer
The coat of arms belonging to Cambridge University. (View Larger)
Origins of Cambridge University
January 1215 – 1217
A 1297 copy of the Magna Carta. (View Larger)
The Magna Carta is Promulgated and Distributed
1218 – 1220
A bust of Genghis Khan. (View Larger)
The Greatest Destruction of Muslim Libraries
1220 – 1235
Two pages from the Heidelberg Sachsenspiegel. (View Larger)
The Most Important Law Book of the German Middle Ages
1224 – 1227First Recorded Issue of Paper Money in the Mongol Empire June 5, 1224Perhaps the Oldest State-Supported University Circa 1225The Earliest Known Classical Latin Piece Written on Paper 1228
The Greater Kyz Kala at Merv, presumed to be the residence of a noble or royal personage. (View Larger)
No Fewer than Twelve Libraries Available to the Public in Merv
April 4, 1228Introduction of the Pecia System 1229
The Cover of Codex Gigas: 92cm tall, 50 cm wide. (View Larger)
The Largest Extant Medieval Manuscript: The Devil's Bible
Circa 1230 – 1275
Folio 1r of Fr. 1573 at the Bibliotheque Nationale, the earliest extant copy of 'Le Roman de la Rose.' (View Larger)
Le Roman de la Rose: A Medieval Best Seller
Circa 1230
Folio 1r of the 'C' manuscript of the Nibelungenlied. (View Larger)
The Song of the Nibelungs
Circa 1230
Villard's schematic illustration of a perpetual-motion machine. Folio 1 of Fr.19093 preserved at the Bibliotheque Nationale. (View Larger)
The Portfolio of Villard de Honnecourt
Circa 1230 – 1300Finding Devices Developed During This Time Are Perhaps the Most Significant in the History of the Book 1231
From his book, De arte venandi cum avibus (The art of hunting with birds), a portrait of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, flanked by a falcon. (View Larger)
Banning the Use of Paper for Legal Documents
1234Confirmation that Printed Textiles Exist in Europe 1234
A portrait of Pope Gregory IX. (View Larger)
Gregory IX Condemns Jews to Inferior Status
June 9 – June 20, 1239Pope Gregory IX Orders the Seizure and Burning of Jewish Books Circa 1240Perhaps the First Grammar of a Romance Language Circa 1240The "De Brailes Hours," The Earliest Surviving English Book of Hours June 3, 1240
A portrait of Louis IX.
Copies of the Talmud are Seized in France
June 1242Louis IX Orders the Burning of 12,000 Manuscripts of the Talmud 1245The First Record of a Chinese Printed Seal in Europe 1245 – 1783The Vatican Archives Follow the Movements of the Pope 1246 – 1247The Earliest Surviving German Document Written on Paper Circa 1250
Rome and its vicinity, as depicted on a reproduction the Tabula Peutingeriana. (View Full Map - Very Large)
The Tabula Peutingeriana: the only Roman World Map that Survived from Antiquity
1250 – 1256
The incipit of HLS MS 1, Harvard Law School's copy of Bracton's De legibus et consuetudinibus Angliae, probably written around the year 1300. (View Larger)
Precedent and Common Law
Circa 1250The First Alphabetical Subject Indexes Circa 1250Possibly the First Joint-Stock Company 1250 – 1550From 1250 to 1550 More Books of Hours Were Produced by Hand & by Press than Any Other Type of Book Circa 1250The Most Extensive Medieval Encyclopedia 1250More than 1000 Birch-Bark Documents Have Been Excavated from Mud in Veliky Novgorod, Russia Circa 1250The Crusader Bible, One of the Greatest Masterpieces of Manuscript Illumination Circa 1250The Black Book of Carmarthen, Probably Earliest Surviving Manuscript Written Entirely in Welsh 1253
Henry III, by an unknown artist. (View Larger)
The Domus Conversorum, Later the Public Record Office
Robert de Sorbon, founder of the University of Paris. (View Larger)
Formation of the University of Paris
Hulagu Khan with his wife, Dokuz Kathun. (View Larger)
So Many Books were Thrown into the Tigris River that they Formed a Bridge…
1265 – 1268
(View Larger)
139 Professional Scribes Are Working in Bologna
A map illustrating both the first and second Polo expeditions. (View Larger)
The Travels of Niccolo and Maffeo Polo
A schematic for Pierre de Maricourt's perpetual motion machine, from an early edition of the Epistola. (View Larger)
Discovery of the Compass--The Earliest Known European Work of Experimental…
1269 – 1544Survival of the Works of Archimedes was Dependent upon Three Manuscripts, Only One of Which Survived to the Present Circa 1270
Humbert de Romans, Dominican scholar who promulgated the notion of arranging books by subject matter.
The Arrangement and Cataloguing of Books
A map of the Polos' eastward journey, begun in 1271. (View Larger)
Carrying the Pope's Response to Kublai Khan
From a late 14th century copy of Richard de Fournival's 'Biblionomia.' A catalog of the section on philosophy, in which books are described by their dimensions. (View Larger)
Foundation of the Library of the Sorbonne, and "Perhaps the Earliest Specific…
Folio 54r of the Worms Mahzor, upon which, in the interstices of the first word in the Prayer for Dew, is inscribed the oldest known Yiddish text: a small blessing in the form of a rhymed couplet, directed towards those who are charged with the seemingly onerous task of carrying the heavy Mahzor from the house of the owner to the synagogue. (View Larger)
The Oldest Surviving Literary Document in Yiddish
1275Early Origins of the Star Chamber Circa 1275 – 1298
A round type case in which Chinese characters are organized by a rhyme scheme, designed and used by Wang Zhen for the production of his book, 'Nong Shu.' (View Larger)
Invention of Wooden Movable Type
Edward I, portrayed in the stained glass of Westminster Abbey.
Edward I's Statute of the Jewry
December 8, 1275The Earliest Surviving Statute Regulating the Paris Book Trade 1276
The Merton College Library, at Oxford. (View Larger)
"The World's Oldest Continuously Functioning Library for University Academics…
1278 – 1325The "North French Hebrew Miscellany": More a Library than a Book 1279
What remains of an early Fabriano paper mill. (View Larger)
The First Paper Mills in Italy
Circa 1280
Autograph Manuscript by Ibn-al-Nafis on the Art of Medicine
1289 – 1338Probably the Largest Medieval Library in Europe 1290
The infamous Edward I. (View Larger)
Edward I Expells the Jews from England
1290Organization of the Sorbonne Library, and the Way it Was Physically Arranged 1294
John of Monte Corvino.
The First European Patrons of the Art of Printing?
Tabriz, Iran, as seen through Google Earth. (View Larger)
A Clear Record of Early Block Printing in Tabriz
September 29, 1295 – April 1, 1296
Detail of image
Llull's Tree of Knowledge
1298 – 1299
Folio 54r from a facsimile of 'Le divisament dou monde,' preserved at the University of Graz, in Germany. (View Larger)
The Lure and Romance of Travel to the East
Circa 1299
A woodblock from Gregor Reisch's Margarita Philosophoca, 1508, depicting a table abacus. (View Larger)
The European Table Abacus
1299 – 1301The Planudean Anthology as Basis for the Anthologia Graeca Circa 1300
The Hereford Mappa Mundi. (View Larger)
The Hereford Mappa Mundi, "The Greatest Extant Thirteenth Century Pictorial…
Circa 1300
A reproduction of Tabula Rogeriana. (View Larger)
The Most Accurate World Map for Three Centuries
Circa 1300
The Bird's Head Haggadah. (View Larger)
The Oldest Surviving Ashkenazi Illuminated Manuscript
Circa 1300Lay Readers and Book Owners by the End of the 14th Century Circa 1300
Four of twelve metal Chinese characters thought to be the world's oldest extant moveable type.
Perhaps the Earliest Movable Metal Type
Circa 1300 – 1320Ivory Booklet with Scenes of the Passion Circa 1300 Insight into the Production of Medieval Books April 2, 1300A Venetian Ordinance on the Production of Eyeglasses Circa 1303 – 1316
Folios 7v-8r of the Metz Pontifical.
The Metz Pontifical: An Unfinished Medieval Masterpiece
The effigy on pope Boniface VIII, carved into the white marble of his sarcophagus in Saint Peter's Basilica. (View Larger)
Origins of the Vatican Library in the Papal Library
Circa 1304 – 1340
Folio 323r of Codex Manesse: a portrait of Reinmar dictating poetry scribes, one of which bears a wax tablet. (View Larger)
The Use of Manuscript Rolls in the Middle Ages
Circa 1304 – 1309
Folio 11 of MS M.232, the Morgan Library's 1470 Belgian manuscript of Ruralia Commoda. (View Larger)
Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, and Horticulture
A portrait of Ramon Llull. (View Larger)
Logical Machines for the Production of Knowledge
1306Origins of Beijing University Circa 1306The Most Widely Used Medieval Florilegium or Anthology: Cutting Edge Information Technology for the Time 1307
A scene from Rashid al-Din Tabib's 'Jami al-Tawarikh' in which the Ghazan Khan is converted to Islam. (View Larger)
Islamic History Containing the Earliest Notice of Chinese Printing from…
1307 – 1308The Earliest Surviving English Paper Codex, and the Earliest Recorded Use of Paper in England 1308 – 1321
A statue of Dante at the Uffizi. (View Larger)
Dante Alighieri's "Divina Commedia"
1309 – 1500The Speculum humanae salvationis 1315 – 1323
Arthur versus the Saxons as depicted in the Rochefoucauld Grail. (View Larger)
The Rochefoucauld Grail
1317 – 1342Prices that Booksellers Should Charge for Manuscripts 1317Early Persian Appreciation of the Value of Chinese Printing for the Standardization of Correct Texts 1319 – 1327The Earliest Use of Paper Money in Japan Circa 1320Medieval Union Catalogue of Manuscripts 1320 – 1340The Luttrell Psalter, Preserving the Memory of Ordinary Folk Alongside the Mighty and the Wealthy 1321Rules for the Operation of the Library of the Sorbonne 1322First Use of Paper in Holland 1322Printing with 100,000 Written Characters of Movable Type Circa 1325 – 1450Renaissance Humanists Hunt for the Manuscripts of Roman Authors 1326The Earliest Dated Astrolabe Made in Europe 1328
A reading room at the Library of the Sorbonne. (View Larger)
The Largest Library in Christendom
A photograph of the Canterbury Cathedral, within which resides the Library of Christ Church. (View Larger)
The Largest Library in England
1338The Second Catalogue of the Library of the Sorbonne 1340The First Two Color Printing Circa 1340The Oldest Known English Public Advertisement Circa 1340French Portable Information Retrieval Device 1343A Painted Wood Panel that Once Covered an Account Book 1345 – 1473
The seal of Richard de Bury. (View Larger)
Philobiblon, Perhaps the Earliest Treatise on Book Collecting and on Preserving…
Circa 1345The Chantilly Illuminated Manuscript of Dante's Inferno 1345Petrarch Discovers Cicero's Letters to Atticus 1347 – 1353
The spread of the Bubonic plague in Europe. (View Larger)
The Black Death
Troyes, France. (View Larger)
Perhaps the First Paper Mill in France
Circa 1350Henry of Kirkestede Compiles a Medieval Union Catalogue of Manuscripts Naming 694 Authors Circa 1350
Hebrew bock-print from the late fourteenth centry.  In the Genizah Collection.
Block Printing May have been Practiced by Arabs and Jews as early as the Mid-14th Century
Circa 1350
A pair of leather spectacles, found, among other artifacts, in 1953 beneath the floorboards of Kloster Wienhausen, near Celle, in Germany. (View Larger)
The Earliest Surviving Spectacles
Circa 1350
From the Sarajevo Haggadah: Moses upon Sinai, holding the Ten Commandments. (View Larger)
The Oldest Sephardic Haggadah
Circa 1350Writing Zilbaldone Circa 1350Routine Everyday Messages Inscribed on Rune-Sticks 1352
The first depiction of spectacles in art: a portrait of Cardinal Hugo of Provence at his writing desk, painted by Tommaso de Mondena in fresco in the Basilica San Nicolo in Treviso, Italy. (View Larger)
The Earliest Depiction of Eyeglasses in a Painted Work of Art
Circa 1360The Gough Map: The Oldest Surviving Road Map of Great Britain and the First Map to Depict a Recognizably Accurate Picture of Britain's Coastline 1368
The courtyard of the Louvre, present day. (View Larger)
Charles V Establishes a Royal Library at the Louvre
1369The Papal Library Contains 2,059 Volumes 1370
Folio 31r of the Rossi Codex, upon which is written a madrigal entitled 'in un broleto, al'alba.' (View Larger)
One of the Earliest Sources of Trecento Secular Polyphonic Music
September 23, 1373Scribes in London First Organize 1374 – 1375The Relative Costs of the Components of Medieval Manuscripts Circa 1375
Folio 3r of the Psałterz Floriansk. (View Larger)
The Earliest Surviving Example of Old Polish Literature
Circa 1375
Folio 1v of Omne Bonum upon which is drawn the four scenes of creation: God creating fish; God creating animals; the Creation of Adam; the Creation of Eve. (View Larger)
The First Encyclopedia Arranged in Alphabetical Order
1375One of the Most Beautiful Medieval Atlases 1377The Earliest References to Playing Cards in Europe 1377
The Earliest Surviving Book Printed from Movable Metal Type
A globe in the present day Merton College Library. (View Larger)
Merton College Library Contains Approximately 500 Manuscripts
Circa 1380
The opening leaf of the Hengwrt Chaucer. (View Larger)
Both of the Earliest and Most Authoritative Manuscripts of Chaucer's Canterbury…
1382Costs for a Missal Produced in 1382 1389The High Point of Medieval Library Cataloguing 1389John Whytefeld Compiles an Innovative Medieval Library Catalogue Circa 1390
A portion of the Dun Ming Hun Yi Tu, or The Great Amalgamated Map, showing the African continent. (View Larger)
The Oldest Map of Africa
A view of Nuremberg--folio 99v/100r of the Nuremberg Chronicles--showing Stromer's paper mill, bordering the city on the bottom right. (View Larger)
Earliest European Document on the Production of Paper
Circa 1390
A recipe for pork in a sage sauce, from The Forme of Cury. (View Larger)
One of the Oldest Known Manuscripts on Cookery in English, Written in the…
1395The First Book in English Written by a Woman June 3, 1398The Oldest Library in Germany? Circa 1399 – 1416Saint Catherine in her Study with her Revolving Bookstand 1402 – 1405
This drawing, from Kyeser's 'Bellifortis,' depicts Alexander the Great holding a rocket. The legend of Alexander was a personal facination for Kyeser. (View Larger)
The First 15th Century Illustrated Treatise on Technology
The seal of the Guild of Stationers.
The Guild of Stationers is Founded
1403 – 1408
A page of the Yongle Encyclopedia. (View Larger)
The Yongle Encyclopedia in 11,095 Volumes, Organized Following a Rhyming…
Circa 1404 – 1438
Several pages from the indecipherable Voynich Manuscript. (View Larger)
The Voynich Manuscript: Uncrackable Code or Great Written Hoax? Progress…
1408The First Dated Example of Poggio's Humanistic Script Circa 1410 – 1415
A facsimile version of the Squarcialupi Codex. (View Larger)
The Largest Primary Source for Music of the Trecento
Circa 1410 – 1430The Bedford Hours and its History 1411 – 1419
The De Virga world map. (View Larger
Medieval Mappa Mundi, Stolen during an Auction
Circa 1413 – 1416
Folio 64v of Les Très Riches Heures, for the month of June. (View Larger)
Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
Circa 1415 – 1420Portable Medieval English Information Retrieval Device Circa 1415 – 1421One of the Oldest Surviving Collections of English Part Music 1417Earliest Known European Textile Printer 1417 – 1473
Architectural frontispiece of the illuminated manuscript of De rerum natura produced in 1483 by Girolamo di Matteo de Tauris for Pope Sixtus IV. The Pope's arms are at the foot of the page.
Poggio Rediscovers Lucretius's De rerum natura
1418 – 1423
St. Christopher woodcut, 1423.
The Earliest Dated European Woodblock Print
The Stuttgart Cards. Originally in the collections of the dukes of Bavaria, these are considered amongst the earliest surviving sets of playing cards.  They date from around 1430. A study of the watermarks in the paper revealed that the patper came from the Ravensburg paper mill and was made between 1427 and 1431.
Printing Playing Cards
1419 – 1449Technological Manuscripts by the Sienese Archimedes Circa 1420 – 1470
An image of Moses from the Book of Leviticus: folio 141v of a manuscript bible produced in the workshop of the scribe Diebold Lauber. (View Larger)
Serial Workshop Production of Medieval Manuscripts
Circa 1420
Folio 2r of Bellicorum instrumentorum liber, showing an 'Oriental siege machine.' (View Larger)
One of the Earliest Surviving Italian Manuscripts on Technology and War…
April 5, 1422 – June 2, 1430The Alba Bible, A Spectacular Record of Religious Tolerance December 15, 1423The Largest and Finest Collection of Greek Texts before Bessarion's 1427 – 1479
The Aztec Calendar Stone. (View Larger)
The Aztec Calendar Stone
Circa 1430The Aztec Emperor Itzcoatl Orders the Burning of All Historical Codices 1434
MS 2923 of the Schoyen collection: the collected works of T'ang Liu, printed in Chinese with moveable type in Seoul, 1438. (View Larger)
A Bronze Type Font of 100,000 Pieces and Later 200,000 Pieces
Page 145b of A Mariner's Knowledge, by Michael of Rhodes, depicting a completed galley ship.
The Earliest Known Treatise on Shipbuilding
1435 – 1455
A rendition of the Martyrdom of St. Sebastian by the Master of Playing Cards, preserved at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. (View Larger)
The Earliest Known Artist to Produce Copperplate Engravings
Circa 1436
A portrait of Louis III by Johann David Werl.
Origins of the Bibliotheca Palatina
1436 – 1438"The Book of Margery Kempe," The First Autobiography Written in English 1437 – 1441
A statue of Leon Lattista Alberti in the Uffizi museum. (View Larger)
The Earliest Grammar of a Romance Language
July 31, 1437Description of Textile Printing and Manuscript Illumination as Well as Painting 1438 – 1444
Johannes Gutenberg. (View Larger)
Gutenberg Begins Experimentation on Printing
A depiction of the Donation of Constantine in the Apostolic Palace, Vatican City, by an artist of Raphael's studio. (View Larger)
Lorenzo Valla Proves that the Donation of Constantine is a Forgery
Circa 1440 – 1475From About 1440 -1470 the Production of Manuscript Books Increased; From 1471 to 1490, with the Increase of Printed Book Production, Manuscript Book Production Declined 1440Vespasiano da Bisticci, Leading Bookseller of Florence Before the Era of Print 1441
Eighteen cards from a pack of an early form of north Italian playing cards, with the swords back-to-back and curved outwards. Believed to be Venetian, dated 1462.
Card Printing in Venice Has Outside Competition
1441 – 1473"The Imitation of Christ" Circa 1442Origins of the Three-Period Framework of History: Ancient, Middle Ages, and Modern 1443 – 1452The First Theoretical Work on Architecture Written During the Italian Renaissance 1444
The library at the Dominican Convent of San Marco, designed by Michelozzo. (View Larger)
The First "Public" Library in Renaissance Europe
1444 – 1471Flavio Biondo Writes the First Guidebook to the Ruins of Ancient Rome, Launching the New Archaeology of the Renaissance 1444 – 1450The Yates Thompson MS 36 of Dante's Divine Comedy 1447 – 1452
The entrance to the Biblioteca Malatestiana. (View Larger)
The First European Civic Library; The Only Completely Preserved 15th Century…
1448The First Concordance of the Hebrew Bible 1448 – 1458The First Historical Geography 1449
Henry VI. (View Larger)
The First English Patent for an Invention
Circa 1449 – 1472
Detail of painting showing presentation by Jean Miélot to
The Most Extensively Portrayed Late Medieval Scribe and Author
1450 – 1571
A woodcut from the Nuremburg Chronicle, showing Erfurt, 1493.
The Library of Hartmann Schedel, One of the Largest Libraries Formed by an Individual in the 15th Century
Circa 1450
The Göttingen Model Book, dating to the mid-15th century, contains instructions for the ornamentation of books and the creation of pigments. These methods can be seen in practice in several early Gutenberg Bibles. (View Larger)
Model Book for Manuscript and Printed Book Illumination
Circa 1450
The Fra Mauro map, created by the monk around 1450, is oriented with the South at the top, and depicts Asia, Africa, and Europe. The artistry is exceptionally detailed, and quite acurate for its time. (View Larger)
"The Greatest Memorial of Medieval Cartography"
1450 – 1460
Detail of page from Philip the Good's Book of Hours.  Please click to view entire image.
The Hours of Philip the Good, Illuminated with Miniatures Using the Grisaille Technique
1450 – 1600A Summary of Printed Outputs Throughout Europe, 1450-1600 April 30, 1451
A hall of the Vatican Library. (View Larger)
Establishment of the Vatican Library
Circa 1452 – 1453
The Sibyllenbuch fragment, the oldest surviving piece of a European book printed with movable type, contains a portion of a German poem about the fate of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Earliest Surviving Remnant of Any European Book Printed by Movable…
1452 – 1483
Lorenzo Valla (View Larger)
The First Latin Translation of Thucydides
1452 – 1455
The self-portrait miniature painted by Jean Fouquet.
Jean Fouquet Paints the Earliest Portrait Miniature and Possibly the Earliest Formal Self-Portrait
April 4, 1452 – July 9, 1453
The Giant Bible of Mainz, copied by hand in large characters as to be read from a lectern, shares many artistic characteristics with the Gutenberg Bible, and may haver served as a model for it. (View Larger)
The Giant Bible of Mainz: Possibly the Model for the Typography in the…
1453 – 1533
A map of the Inca road system. (View Larger)
The Inca Road System
May 29 – June 1453
A portrait of Mehmed II by Gentile Bellini.
The Ottoman Turks Capture Constantinople, Resulting in the Transfer of…
Circa 1454Possibly the First Printed Edition Donatus's "Ars minor", the Most Widely Used Medieval Grammar October 22, 1454
The 31-line indulgence preserved in the Scheide Library at Princeton.
The Earliest Dated European Document Printed by Movable Type
1455 – 1456
The 42-line Gutenberg Bible, completed in in 1456 by Johannes Gutenberg, Johann Fust & Peter Schöffer, is the earliest European book printed from movable type, by a process of Gutenberg's own invention. (View Larger)
Gutenberg Prints the 42-Line Bible
March 12, 1455
An image of Pope Pius II in blessing, from a biographical fresco in the Cathedral Library of Siena. (View Larger)
"The Sale of a Printed Bible"
November 6, 1455
The notarial document, drafted by Ulrich Helmasperger, clerk of the Bishopric of Bamberg, royal notary and certified public recorder at the Court of the Archbishop of Mainz, which provides the only contemporary account of the suit filed by Fust against Gutenberg. (View Larger)
Fust Files a Lawsuit against Gutenberg to Recover Money Used for the "Work…
1456The Aderlasskalender, the First Known Medical or Scientific Work to be Printed, Surviving in Only One Copy June 29, 1456
Johannes Gutenberg printed the only surviving copy of the Bulla Thurcorum, which instituted special prayers for Christians during the Turkish encroachment in the Balkans as part of an effort to galvanize European unity in preparation for another Crusade. (View Larger)
The Bulla Turcorum of Calixtus III, of Which One Copy Survives
Circa July 1456
Pope Calixtus III.
"Die Bulla widder die Turcken", also Printed by Gutenberg, of which One Copy Survives
August 14, 1457
The colophon of the 1457 Mainz Psalter, featuring the first printer's mark. (View Larger)
The Mainz Psalter. . . .without "Any Driving of the Pen"
Circa 1458
A bust of Johannes Mentlin in the Humanist Library of Sélestat. (View Larger)
Johannes Mentelin, a Scribe and Illuminator Adopts the New Technology
October 4, 1458
A portrait of Charles VII of France by Jean Fouquet.
Charles VII Orders a "Well-Qualified Agent" from his Royal Mints to Travel to Mainz to Learn Printing
Circa 1459 – 1461
The 36-line Bible, the second printed edition, was most likely published in Bamberg, Germany, around 1458-1460. No printers name appears in the book, but Johannes Gutenberg may have been involved in its publication. (View Larger)
The 36-Line Bible is Published
August 29, 1459
An illuminated page from a copy of the 1459 Mainz Psalter preserved at the Bodelian Library. (View Larger)
The 1459 Mainz Psalter
October 6, 1459
The first page of Guillelmus Duranti's Rationale divinorum officiorum. (View Larger)
Fust and Schöffer Publish the First Book Set in Fere-Humanistica or Gotico-Antiqua…
Circa 1460 – 1465An Intermediate Form Between a Collection of Prints and a Blockbook 1460
The Latin Bible printed by Johannes Mentelin in Strassbourg before 27 June 1466. ISTC No.: ib00624000.
Johannes Mentelin Issues the Second Printed Edition of the Bible
1460 – 1469Gutenberg's Last Production? An Early Form of Stereotyping? Circa 1460 – 1490
A page from Der Edelstein printed by Albrecht Pfister showing the integration of images with the printed text.
How the Relationship Between Text and Image Evolved in Early Printed Books in Essentially One Generation
Circa 1460Printing Required the Simplication of the Graphic Form of the Book February 14, 1461Albreht Pfister Publishes "Der Edelstein", the First Book Printed in German and the First Dated Book with Woodcuts 1462 – 1463
This Biblia Pauperum, or 'pauper's bible,' is the first known work to combine the woodcut images and movable type. (View Larger)
"Biblia pauperum", the First Combination of Text and Illustrations in One…
August 14, 1462
The Schöffer & Fust bible of 1462 was the first dated bible as well as the first to include a printer's mark. (View Larger)
Fust & Schöffer Issue the First Explicitly Dated Bible, with the First…
October 27, 1462
The coat of arms of Archbishop Diether von Isenberg, as depicted in the modern stain glass of the Mainz Cathedral.
Warfare Accelerates the Spread of Printing
Manuscript Title page of Bulla Cruciata Contra Turcos
Pope Pius II's "Bulla Cruciata contra Turcos", the First Publication with a Separate Printed Title Page
Circa 1463
Page from the first book printed in Italy. Click on the image to see the entire image.
"Passione di Cristo", the First Book Printed in Italy
The first page of a manuscript of De oratore by Cicero, written and illuminated in Northern Italy in the 15th century, and preserved in the British Library
Cicero's "De oratore", Perhaps the First Book Printed in Italy
Sabuncuoglu Serafeddin.
Şerafeddin Sabuncuoğlu Publishes The First Atlas of Pediatric Surgery (in Manuscript Form)
Detail from page of De officiis with Paradoxa Stoicorum.  Click on the image to see the entire page.
The First Three Printed Editions of Classical Texts, all by Cicero
Circa 1465 – 1475
The panel painting by Hans Memling depicting the Annunciation, with Mary reading from a manuscript. (Click on the image to view larger.)
Depiction of Mary Reading from a Manuscript Book by Hans Memling
October 29, 1465
Detail of page from Lactantius' Opera containing Greek text.  Please click on link to open and resize larger image showing full page.
Sweynheym & Pannartz Issue the First Dated Book Printed in Italy, Containing the First Printing in Greek
Portrait of Augustine of Hippo by Philippe de Champaigne.
An Anonymous Scholar Describes the Value and Difficulty of Preparing an Accurate Manuscript for Printing
1466 – 1471The First Printed Editions of the Speculum humanae salvationis June 1466
The German Mentelin Bible, published by Johann Mentelin in 1466, was the first bible published in a modern language. (View Larger)
Johannes Mentelin Issues the First Edition of the Bible in a Modern Language
Adolf Rusch's printing of the encyclopedia 'De Sermonum Propietate,
Adolf Rusch Issues the First Printed Encyclopedia, by Hrabanus Maurus
An engraved portrait of Leon Battista Alberti. Engraved by G. Benaglia and published in the 18th century.
Leon Battista Alberti Describes "The Alberti Cipher"
1467 – 1472Jerome's "De viris illustribus", the First Work to Stress the Bibliography Rather than the Biography of Eminent Writers June 12, 1467
The first edition of St. Augustine's 'De Civitate Dei,' meaning City of God, is the oldest printed work for which the original manuscript remains. (View Larger)
Augustine's "De civitate dei", Possibly the Earliest Printed Book for which…
December 31, 1467
An engraved portrait of Juan de Torquemada from 1791. (Click on the image to view larger.)
Torquemada's "Mediationes", the Earliest Illustrated Printed Book Published in Italy
Portrait of Pope Paul II by Cristofano dell'Atissimo (1525-1605).
Printing Decreased the Costs of Books by 80%
1469 – 1470
Detail of page from Sweynheym and Pannartz's edition of the Opera of Virgil at Rome. (Please click on image to view the entire page.)
The First Printed Editions of Virgil
1469 – 1472
The 'Rome Incunabula,' a collection of six Jewish texts, are thought to be the oldest works printed in Hebrew. (View Larger)
The Earliest Books Printed in Hebrew
Circa 1469 – 1550The Extraordinary Productivity of Early Venetian Printers June 1469 – September 1470
A portrait of Peter Schoffer.
Peter Schöffer Issues the Earliest Surviving Book List Issued by a Printer
Circa August 27, 1469
Wood engraved portrait of Cardinal Basilios Bessarion from the Bibliotheca chalcographica.
Cardinal Bessarion Issues the First Full Exposition of Plato's Thought Published in the West
September 1469
Portrait of Andrea Navagero Beazzano and Augustine by Raphael, 1516. (Click on image to view larger.)
Johannes de Spira Becomes the First Printer in Venice
A 17th century engraving of The Sorbonne, Paris.
Heynlin & Fichet Establish the First Press in France
Circa 1470Three Ways that Printing Changed Manuscript Culture 1470
The typographer's mark of Venetian Nicolas Jensen, creator of the first Roman-style typeface. (View Larger)
Eusebius Caesariensis, "De evangelica praeparatione", the First Book Printed…
1470 – 1474The First Printed Concordance of the Bible 1470The First Printed Books with Indices July 12, 1470 – 1471Ancestors of the First Newspapers? The Fall of Negroponte: One of the First News Events to be Discussed in Print 1471
Archbishop Niccolò Perotti of Spiponto was the first to suggest Vatican censorship and review of all printed works after noticing numerous errors in an edition of Pliny.
Niccolò Perotti Makes the First Call for Press Censorship
Circa 1471The First Basic Greek Grammar and the First Book Printed in Greek September 25, 1471First Printed Edition of the Only Formal Roman Treatise on Geography 1472
This edition of Roberto Valturio's 'De re militari' contains the first woodcuts on a scientific subject, used not for artistic embellishment but for diagraming and explanation. (View Larger)
"De re militari", the First Printed Book on Technology with the First Woodcuts…
1472Printers Sweynheym and Pannartz Request Financial Assistance from Pope Sixtus VI 1472 – 1475The Earliest Printings of Plato in the Fifteenth Century 1472The First Three Printed Editions of Dante's Divine Comedy April 21, 1472Bagellardo's Pediatrics, the First Medical or Scientific Treatise to be First Published as a Printed Book Rather than a Manuscript May 12, 1472Scribes in Genoa Attempt to Block Competition from Printers November 19, 1472
Earliest printed example of a classical T and O map (by Günther Zainer, Augsburg, 1472), illustrating the first page of chapter XIV of the Etymologiae of Isidore of Seville. It shows the continents as domains of the sons of Noah: Sem (Shem), Lafeth (Japheth) and Cham (Ham).
The First Printed Edition of Isidore's "Etymologiae" Includes the First Map Included in a Printed Book
1473 – 1474William Caxton Issues the First Book Printed in English 1473The First Printed Edition of "Philobiblon": Collecting, Preserving and Handling Books Circa 1473The Earliest Printed Music Appears in the "Constance Gradual" 1473 – 1474Günther Zainer Issues "Vocabularius", the First Technical Dictionary August 1473 – December 1474Scribe Filippo de Strata's Polemic Against Printing 1474The Library of Giovanni di Marco da Rimini, Possibly the Earliest Physician's Library Preserved Intact 1474Probably the Best-Selling 15th Century Printed Book by a Living Author. 1474 – April 20, 1475The First Printed Editions of Herodotus 1475The First Catalogue of the Vatican Library Circa 1475 – 1479The First Printed Cookbook: Platina's "De honesta voluptate" Circa 1475The Black Hours 1475The Staff and Salaries of a 15th Century Venetian Printing Office January 26, 1475
Section of a page from the Codex Justinianus.
Peter Schöffer Issues the "Codex Justinianus", Probably the First Printed Civil Law Book
February 17, 1475Abraham ben Garton Issues the First Dated Book Printed in Hebrew August 5, 1475The First "Modern" Printed Map: Lucas Brandis' Map of the Holy Land September 13, 1475The First Printed Edition of the First Geography Contains No Maps October 30, 1475
The first edition of Konrad von Megenberg's 'Buch der Natur' was both the first German natural history and the first woodcut-illustrated natural history, including this woodcut from the chapter on zoology. (View Larger)
Konrad von Megenberg's "Buch der Natur", the First Illustrated Printed…
1476Erhard Ratdolt Issues Regiomontanus's "Kalendario", with the First "Modern" Title Page 1476Aristotle's "De animalibus", the First Printed Compilation of Works on Biology 1476 – 1477Caxton Prints the First Book Advertisement in the English Language January 30, 1476Constantine Lascaris, "Erotemata", the First Book Printed Entirely in Greek Type April 18, 1476Jean de Vigne's "La légende dorée", the First Book Printed in French July 24, 1476The Kennicott Bible, the Most Lavisly Illuminated Hebrew Bible to Survive from Medieval Spain September 29 – December 1476William Caxton Opens the First Printing Office in England and Issues A Letter of Indulgence, the First Recorded Piece of English Printing October 12, 1476Ulrich Han Issues the First Dated Printed Book Containing Music 1477
Detail of map from Ptolemy's Cosmographia showing the southeastern coast of Spain.  Click on the link to view and enlarge the entire page from the book.
The first illustrated edition of Ptolemy's Cosmographia, the First Book with Engraved Maps
May 9, 1477
First page of of the first, unillustrated edition of De viribus herbarum carmen. (Click on the image to view the full page.)
Macer Floridus's "De viribus herbarum carmen", the First Printed Herbal
August 1477 – 1480The First Hebrew Biblical Text Printed? November 18, 1477Caxton's "The Dictes or Sayengis of the Philosophres", the First Dated Book Printed in England 1478Leonardo Builds a Programmable Mechanical Automaton July 1478The First Printed Edition of Dioscorides October 1478Arnald of Villanova's "Von Bewahrung und Bereitung der Weine", the First Printed Book on Wine December 10, 1478
Page from Arte dell'Abbaco. 
This unpretentious little book could almost be taken as a symbol of the third component in the collection of George A. Plimpton:
"Arte dell’Abbaco", the First Dated Printed Book on Arithmetic and the Operation of the Abacus
August 28, 1479
Detail from page of Breviarium (1479) printed by Pachel and Scinzenzeler depicting the author, Paulus Attavanti.
The Earliest Portrait of an Author in a Printed Book
1480A Typical Print Run in 1480 1480 – 16001775 Different Editions of Printed Books of Hours Were Issued Between 1480 and 1600 1480"La edifichation de molti pallazi & tempii & altri gradissimi edificii de roma", an Early Printed Guidebook to Rome, Known from a Single Surviving Copy March 21, 1480Franciscus Niger's "Grammatica", Containing the First Appearance of a "Musical Idea" in a Printed Book September 1480Nicolas Jensen's Will: the First Concrete Evidence of the Existence of Matrices for the Casting of Type Fonts Circa 1481 – 1482
Detail of page from Herbarium apulei with illustration of herb.  Please click to view entire image.
"Herbarium Apulei", the First Printed Herbal with Illustrations and Probably the First Series of Illustrations on a Scientific Subject
1481"Psalterium Graeco-latinum cum Canticis", the Earliest Printing of Any Book of the Bible in Greek 1482
Detail of map from Pomponius Mela's Cosmographi geographia printed in 1482.  Please click to view entire image.
The First World Map to Show the Results of the Age of Discovery
January 26, 1482The First Printed Edition of the Torah in Hebrew May 25, 1482
Detail of page from Euclid's Elements.  Please click to view entire page.
Euclid's Elements, the Most Famous Textbook Ever Published
Circa 1483"Treatise on the Pestilence", the Earliest Medical Work Printed in English 1483The First Printed Bibliography of a Medical Author: Galen February 1 – October 25, 1483Printed on Vellum and Illuminated by Girolamo da Cremona, and Others July 4, 1483"Tabulae Alphonsinae", Among the Earliest Printed Mathematical Tables September 13, 1483Ratdolt's Edition of Eusebius's "Chronicon" Contains One of the Earliest Acknowledgments of Gutenberg's Invention 1484The Sultan Prohibits Turks from Printing 1484 – 1485The First Edition of Plato's Opera, Printed by the First Press to Employ Women November 3, 1484Rules of the Library, Merton College, Oxford, 1484 Circa 1485 – 1516Leonardo's Anatomical Drawings 1485
The first book illustration printed in three colors of ink. Detail from page of Theoricae novae planetarium. Please click to view entire page.
The First Book Illustration Printed in Three Colors
Circa 1485An Early Depiction of a Child Crumpling the Pages of a Book Circa 1485 – 1525Law Books Are the Leading Subject in Venetian Publishing August 1485"A Horse, A Horse, My Kingdom for a Horse." 1486"Book of Hawking, Hunting and Heraldry", the Earliest Work Printed in England to Contain Color Printing 1486 – August 16, 1487 Vitruvius, "De architectura", the First Printed Work on Classical Architecture 1486The First Printed Haggadah February 11, 1486Breydenbach's "Peregrinatio in terram sanctam", the First Illustrated Travel Book: An International Bestseller April 1, 1486Erhard Ratdolt Issues the Earliest Known Type Specimen September 1, 1486 – May 21, 1487Marco Antonio Sabellico Receives the First Known Author's Copyright 1487 – 1488Discovery of a Lost Painting by Michelangelo? March 23, 1487Isaac Judaeus' "De particularibus diaetis", the First Separately Printed Treatise on Diet April 1487"Malleus Malleficarum", Handbook for Witch-Hunters and Inquisitors November 17, 1487Pope Innocent VIII Begins Prepublication Censorship 1488 – 1489The Editio Princeps of Homer: The First Printing of a Major Greek Work in its Original Language April 22, 1488The First Complete Printed Hebrew Bible December 19 – December 29, 1488Gershom Soncino Sells the First Copy of His First Book July 16 – November 25, 1489The First and Second Books Printed in Lisbon Circa 1490
Detail of leaf of Les Basses danses de Marguerite d'Autriche.  Please click on link below to view and resize complete image.
The Earliest Known Dance Notation
Circa 1490The Macclesfield Alphabet Book, the Most Complete Pattern Book from Medieval Britain July 26, 1491Ketham's "Fasciculus medicinae", the First Medical Book with Anatomical Illustrations 1492Martin Behaim's "Erdapfel", the Oldest Surviving Terrestrial Globe January 30, 1492Restoring the Whole of Spain to Christian Rule March 31, 1492Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand Expell the Jews from Spain July 30 – October 12, 1492Departure of Columbus for the New World & the Expulsion of the Jews from Spain August 1492Sultan Bayezid II Wellcomes Jewish Refugees from Spain August 18, 1492"Grammatica Nebrissensis", the First Printed Grammar of a Vernacular February 15, 1493Columbus's Description of the New World: the First Eyewitness Report to Become a Bestseller; in 2016, Reports of a Theft and Forgery of a Copy of the Third Edition June 12 – December 23, 1493The Nuremberg Chronicle December 13, 1493The First Book Printed in the Ottoman Empire 1494Trithemius Favors Vellum over Paper for Long Term Information Storage 1494Johannes Trithemius Publishes the Earliest Subject Bibliography 1494Probably the Earliest European Depiction of Native Americans February 11, 1494Sebastian Brant's "Book Fool", and Others November 10 – November 20, 1494
Page from Summa de arithmetica geometria, proporzioni et proporzionalita at the Libarary for Humanitities and Social Sciences at the Kobe University. (Click on the image to view the full page opening.)
Pacioli Issues "Summa de arithmetica", the First Great General Work on Mathematics
1495Trithemius Issues the First Printed Bibliography on Secular Subjects 1495 – 1498The Aldine Aristotle, One of the Most Significant Publishing Ventures of the Fifteenth Century February 1495 – 1496The Aldine Theocritus: Scholarly Compromises in Running a Publishing House Circa 1496The First English Book Printed on Paper Made in England 1498 – 1500Before the Reformation Indulgences Remained a Huge Business for Printers May 25, 1498 – 1501
 'Harmonice Musices Odhecaton,' a collection of secular songs, was the first book of music to be printed using movable type.  (View Larger)
The First Book of Sheet Music Printed from Movable Type
Circa 1499The Persistence of Illuminated Manuscript Production Fifty Years After the Introduction of Printing February 18, 1499The First Illustration of a Printing Office & Bookshop in a Printed Book 1500Early Printing in Hebrew Circa 1500 – 1565
 Pencil 'lead' has never actually contained the metal; its name arrose from a visual similarity between the two substances. (View Larger)
Origins of the Pencil
A recipe for Custarde taken from the Boke of Kokery, c. 1440.
Richard Pyson Issues the First English Cookbook, Known from a Single Surviving Copy
Circa 1500 – 1600The Transition from Latin to the Vernacular in the 16th Century Circa 1500The Growth of Literacy from 1100 to 1500 Circa 1500Leonardo's Lost Painting, "Salvator Mundi", Discovered 1500A Census of Print Runs for Fifteenth-Century Books 1500 – 1700Avvisi: Hand-Written Newsletters Conveying Political, Military and Economic News Circa 1500 – 1520The Rothschild Prayerbook is Illuminated Circa 1500"Paper accounts for as much as fifty percent of the cost of a Renaissance-era book" Circa 1500Aldus's "Rules of the Modern Academy" Known From a Single Surviving Copy Circa 1500By 1500 Five Different Kinds of Music Notation Were Cut into Type December 1500
 The 'Nuremberg Chronicle,' written in Latin by Hartmann Schedel and published in 1493, is represented by c. 1250 surviving copies, more than any other incunabulum.  (View Larger)
Printing Presses are Established in 282 Cities
December 1500The Number of Early Printed Editions Which Survived Versus the Number of Surviving Medieval Manuscripts 1501
 Pope Alexander VI issued a bull granting cesorial powers over book printing to Archbishops and local authorities serving under them. (View Larger)
Pope Alexander VI Confirms & Expands Censorship
April 1501The Aldine Virgil: the First Book Completely Printed in Italic Type and the First of Aldus's Pocket Editions of the Classics, Model for the Portable Printed Book Format September 13, 1501 – September 8, 1504
 Michelangelo's marble 'David,' symbol of the Florentine Renaissance, depicts the biblical hero holding rock and sling, his right hand intentionally enlarged to show the power of God acting through him. (View Larger)
Michelangelo Creates his Statue of David
1502Ambrosio Calepino Issues the First Modern Dictionary & the Most Successful & Widely Reprinted Reference Work of the Early Modern Period 1502Aldus Manutius Publishes the Editiones Principes of Thucydides, Sophocles, and Herodotus 1503Domenico Nani Mirabelli Issues One of the First General Reference Works Produced for the Printed Book Market Circa 1504Newly Discovered: The Earliest Surviving Globe Showing the New World 1505
Tomb relief of Johannes Trithemius
Johannes Trithemius Great Expands his Abbey Library as a Result of the Development of Printing
Portrait of Symphorien Champier.
Symphorien Champier Publishes the First Medical Bibliography of Medical Literature and the First Medical History after Celsus
April 1507
A portion of the last surviving copy of the Waldseemüller map, made by German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller in 1507, was the first published map to include the name 'America.' (View Larger)
Martin Waldseemüller Creates the First Map to Name America: A Wall Map…
September 15, 1507
 The printer's mark of Androw Myllar, who together with Walter Chepman became the first printer in Scotland under King James IV.
Walter Chepman and Andrew Myllar Issue the First Book Printed in Scotland
1508Wynkyn de Worde Issues the First English Book on Preparing and Carving Meat, Game and Fish 1508 – 1520The Introduction of Pasteboard for the Covers of Bindings 1509 – 1510
 The Aberdeen Breviary, published in 1507 and the first major work to be printed in Scotland, briefly recounts the lives of various Scottish saints. (View Larger)
Walter Chepman & Androw Myllar Issue The Aberdeen Breviary, the First "Major"…
August 19, 1509 – June 6, 1510
   Maximilain I, who greatly extended the House of Habsburg around the turn of the 16th century, decreed in 1509 the confiscation of Jewish books as a method of encouraging Jewish conversion to Christianity; however, he reversed his decision in 1510 and the texts were returned.      (View Larger)
Maximilian I Orders the Confiscation of Jewish Books, but Eventually Rescinds…
Circa 1510 – 1539Ferninand Columbus Collects One of the Largest Private Libraries of the 16th Century 1510Francesco Albertini Issues the First Guidebook to Ancient and Modern Rome: a New "Mirabilia Romae" May 22, 1511
 The first printed edition of 'De Architectura,' originally written by Roman architect Marcus Virtuvius Pollio, was printed in Venice in 1511 and contained 136 woodcut illustrations and diagrams.  (View Larger)
Fra Giovanni Giocondo Issues the First Illustrated Edition of Vitruvius
1512Hakob Meghapart Issues the First Book Printed in Armenian 1513Marcellus Silber Issues the First Book Printed in the Ancient Ethiopian Language of Ge'ez and the First Book Printed in Rome in Oriental Type September 1513Richard Fawkes Issues the Earliest English Printed Newsbook 1514 – 1517
 Gregorio de Gregorii, an Italian printer, published the first book in Arabic with moveable type in 1514, commissioned by Pope Julius II for delivery to Christians in the Middle East.    (View Larger)
Gregorio de Gregorii Issues the First Book Printed in Arabic by Movable…
1514Painter Quentin Matsys Uses a Book of Hours as a Prop for Satire 1514
Detail from page of Theorica et practica . . .de modo scribendi fabricandique omnes literarum species.  Please click on image to view entire page opening.
Sigismondo Fanti Issues the First Illustrated Manual on the Art of Writing
Circa 1515 – 1520The Grimani Breviary: a Remarkable Artistic Collaboration May 4, 1515
 Pope Leo X, famous for later fighting Martin Luther's 95 theses, issued the strictest decree of papal censorship to date in 1515, with the aim of eliminating 'dangerous' texts which were causing evil to propogate 'from day to day.' (View Larger)
Pope Leo X Decrees the Most Stringent Papal Censorship Before the Reformation
1516Samuel ben Isaac Nedivot & his Son Isaac Issue the First Book Printed on the Continent of Africa 1517
    Alessandro Minuziano was effectively the first to challenge a 'copyright' by reprinting an edition with exclusive rights; the Pope who issued the right was angered, but later allowed the publication after a detailed apology from Minuziano.   (View Larger)
Alessandro Minuziano Records the First Documented Legal Case Concerning…
October 31, 1517
 Martin Luther begins the Protestant Reformation in Germany in 1517, the spread of which is largely due to the mass availability of Luther's 95 Theses in German, making the movement of the Reformation 'one of the first in history to be aided by the printing press.' (View Larger)
Martin Luther Launches the Protestant Reformation
July 1518
 The 'square table' of abbot Johannes Trithemius’s 'Polygraphiae libri sex. - Clavis polygraphiae' was an example of how a message might be encoded through the use of multiple alphabets. (View Larger)
Johannes Trithemius Issues the First Book on Cryptography
1519 – 1523Daniel van Bomberghen, a Devout Christian, Issues the First Printed Edition of the Complete Babylonian Talmud Circa 1520 – 1541Nicolaus Copernicus Writes "De Revolutionibus" in His Own Handwriting Circa 1520 – 1850Some Tentative Observations on Dating Carta Rustica Bindings June 15, 1520
 The title page of Pope Leo X's bull 'Exsurge Domine,' bearing the Papal coat of arms, was written to warn Martin Luther that he must recant his 95 Theses or risk excommunication. (View Larger)
Pope Leo X Responds to Luther's "95 Theses"
August 1520
Martin Luther's 'On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church,' in which he criticizes the seven sacraments of the Catholic Church, was the second of three treatises published by Luther in 1520 which became manifestos for the Reformation.  (View Larger)
Martin Luther Issues the Manifesto of the Reformation
December 10, 1520Luther Burns Leo X's Papal Bull 1521Giacomo Berengario da Carpi Issues the First Work Since the Time of Galen to Show Original Anatomical Information Based upon Personal Investigation & Observation January 3, 1521
 Pope Leo X excommunicates Reformation leader Martin Luther after Luther refused to recant his 95 Theses criticizing the Church. (View Larger)
Pope Leo X Excommunicates Martin Luther
May 26, 1521The Emperor Charles V Issues "The Law of Printing" in Response to the Excommunication of Luther July 15, 1521
Detail of Title Page of De Architectura Libri Dece.  Please click on the image to see the full page.
Cesare Cesariano & Colleagues Interpret Roman Architecture in the Artistic Language of the Renaissance
Detail of recto 32 of Berengario da Carpi's Isagoge breves perlucide ac uberime in anatomia humani corporis.  Please click on image to view entire page.
Berengario da Carpi Issues a Condensation of his Commentary on Mondino
1522 – 1524Ludovico Vicentino degli Arrighi Issues the First Manual on Humanistic Cursive 1522Giovanni Nevizzano Issues the First Legal Bibliography October 14, 1522Cuthbert Tunstall Issues the First Book Published in England Devoted Exclusively to Mathematics Circa 1525The Venetian Arsenal Develops the First Large-Scale Production-Line 1525
 The manuscript of Marco Fabio Calvo's Hippocratic Collection, transcribed in his own had, was used in the preparation of his 1525 Latin printing of the work.  (View Larger)
Marco Fabio Calvo Revives Hippocrates as the Precursor of Galen
1525Andrea Torresani di Asolo Issues the Editio Princeps of Galen in Greek 1526 – 1550Half of All Books Published in Europe are Printed in Venice May 6, 1527 – February 1528Troups Loyal to Charles V Sack Rome, Marking the End of the High Renaissance 1528Albrecht Dürer Expounds the Aesthetic Anatomy of Human Proportion 1530 – 1536Otto Brunfels & Hans Weiditz Issue the First Accurate, Detailed Woodcuts of Plants Taken Directly from Nature September 1533Johannes Herwagen Issues the First Printed Edition of the Greek Text of Euclid Circa 1535Bronzino Paints a Portrait of an Elegant Young Man Mishandling a Book 1536 – 1541
 In 1536, King Henry VIII formally disbands all monasteries in his realm and seizes their property, including thousands of books and manuscripts, most of which were subsequently lost or destroyed.  (View Larger)
Henry VIII's Dissolution of the Monasteries Brings Destruction and Dispersal…
1536 – 1537
 Johann Dryander, one of the first German doctors to perform public disections, published his 'Anatomia Capitis Humani' in 1536, which contained the most extensive study on the human head to date, and the first 'Galenic dissection' of the brain.  (View Larger)
Johann Dryander & Hans Brosamer Issue the First Significant Book on the…
January 6, 1536Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza Establishes the First European School of Higher Learning in the Americas August 9, 1537 – August 9, 1538Paganino & Alessandro Paganini Issue the First Printed Edition of the Qur'an in Arabic, of Which One Copy Survived November 16, 1538Henry VIII Establishes Pre-Publication Censorship in England June 12, 1539
 The 'Casa de la Primera Imprenta de América,' where printer Juan Pablos printed what is likely the first book in the Western Hemisphere, still stands today in Mexico City.  (View Larger)
Juan Pablos Issues the First Book Printed in the Western Hemisphere
1540Vannoccio Biringuccio Describes the "Fire-Using Arts, Including the First Description of Typecasting Circa 1540The Codex Mendoza, Perhaps Commissioned by Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza 1540 – 1585Masters at Colegio de Santa Cruz de Santiago Tlaltelolco Create the Florentine Codex, the First Illustrated Encyclopedia of the New World Circa 1540 – 1609John Dee Collects Perhaps the Largest Library in Elizabethan England 1541 – 1614The Library of the Painter El Greco and its Influence upon his Art 1542
 Robert Estienne, 16th Century Parisian scholar and printer, issued the first book-form publisher's catalog of which any copies survive in 1542.
Robert Estienne Issues the First Surviving Publisher's Catalogue in Book…
 In 1542, Jean Fernel published the first treatise on human physiology in thirteen-hundred years, originally titled 'De naturali parte medicinae libri septem,' which remained the defining work on the subject for more than a century.  (View Larger)
Jean Fernel Issues the First "Modern" Treatise on Physiology
1542 – 1543Theodore Bibliander & Johannes Oporinus Issue the First Printed Edition of the Latin Translation of the Qur'an 1542Leonhard Fuchs, Albrecht Mayer, Heinrich Füllmaurer & Viet Rudolf Speckle Issue the First "Modern" Herbal, with Self-Portraits of the Artists 1542Andrew Boorde Issues the First Printed Book to Set Out Rules for a Healthy Diet 1543Nicolaus Copernicus Begins the Copernican Revolution 1543
 In 1543, Martin Luther publishes the first modern antisemitic work, going so far as to condone the enslavement and murder of Jews, writing that the public is 'at fault in not slaying them.' (View Larger)
Martin Luther Issues the First Work of Modern Antisemitism
1543Leonhard Fuchs' Unpublished Masterpiece of Renaissance Botany May 1543The Oldest Surviving Articulated Human Skeleton in Europe, Articulated by Andreas Vesalius May 12, 1543Henry VIII Restricts the Reading of the Bible June 1543
 The title page of Andreas Versalius' 'De humani corporis fabrica libri septem,' published in 1543, was a revolutionary work of unmatched scientific and artistic precision.  (View Larger)
Andreas Vesalius Produces a Unprecedented Blend of Scientific Exposition,…
June 1543Simultaneously with the "Fabrica" Vesalius Issues a Condensation, or Road-Map, of the Encyclopedic Work 1544William Turner Issues the First Ornithological Treatise to Contain Descriptions of Individual Species Based upon the Author's own Observations 1545 – 1555
 In 1545, Swiss zoologist and naturalist Conrad Gessner publishes the first 'universal bibliography,' cataloging about 12,000 titles in an attempt to control the 'labyrinth' of books and information which had arrisen since the invention of printing.  (View Larger)
Conrad Gessner Issues the First Universal Bibliography Since the Invention…
1545 – 1546Charles Estienne Includes Erotic Images Made Acceptable by their Adaptation for Medical Purposes 1545Guido Guidi Issues a Spectacular Book of Renaissance Surgery and Graphic Arts 1545Joos Lambrechit Publishes the First Illustration of an Adjustable Type-Mould October 1545 – 1553Thomas Geminus Issues the First Edition of Vesalius Published in England 1546Guilio Clovio Completes a Masterpiece of High Renaissance Manuscript Illumination 1546Johannes Werner Issues a Pioneering Work on Environmental Science and Meteorology October 1546Andreas Vesalius Publishes the First Attempt to Formulate Methods of Identification of an Exotic Drug and Methods of Detecting its Adulteration 1548 – 1549Conrad Gessner Issues the First General Subject Index 1548Ignacio López de Loyola Issues Exercitia Spiritualia 1548John Bale Issues the First National Bibliography, of Writers in England, Wales, and Scotland Circa 1550A Sixfold Dos-à-Dos Binding from the Sixteenth Century Circa 1550The "Wide" Distribution of "Popular" Broadsides and Pamphlets by the Mid-16th Century Circa 1550Widely Distributed Cheap "Scientific Works" from the Mid-Sixteenth Century 1552
A page of the Libellus de Medicinalibus Indorum Herbis, an Aztec herbal composed in 1552 by Martin de la Cruz and translated into Latin by Juan Badianus, illustrating the tlahcolteocacatl, tlayapaloni, axocotl, and chicomacatl plants, which were used to make a
Juan Badiana Translates Aztec Medical Botany & Psychoactive Plants from the Nahuati
Engraved portrait of Michael Servetus.
Michael Servetus: Medical Discovery, Heresy, and Martyrdom
Table of reciprocal alphabet from a 1555 book by Giovan Battista Bellaso.
Giovan Battista Bellaso Describes the First "Unbreakable" Text Autokey Cipher
1554The Spanish Inquistion Publishes its First List of Censored Works Circa 1555
Portrait of Prince-elector Otto Henry by Georg Pencz, 1530-1545. The painting now resides in St. Petersburg. 
Otto-Henry, Elector Palatine, Founds the Bibliotheca Palatina
Engraved portrait of Hernan Cortes by W. Holl and published by Charles Knight.
Brother Juan Diaz Publishes the First Treatise on Mathematics Published in the Western Hemisphere and the First Textbook on Any Subject Besides Religion Printed Outside of Europe
1556Juan Valverde de Amusco Issues the First Great Original Spanish Medical Book, Illustrated and Printed in Rome 1556Georgius Agricola Issues De Re Metallica, the Most Famous Classic on Mining and Metallurgy 1556Ulisse Aldrovandi's Guide to Ancient Statuary in Rome 1557Robert Granjon Issues the First Book Printed in Civilité Types 1557
Engraved portrait of Hubert Golzius by Simon Frisius c. 1610.
Hubert Goltzius Issues the First Book Extensively Illustrated with Chiaroscuro Woodcuts
May 4, 1557Queen Mary & King Philip Concentrate the Entire Printing Business in the Members of the Stationers Company 1558
A portrait of Albreccht V, Duke of Bavaria by Hans Mielich, 16th century.
Albert V, Duke of Bavaria, Founds the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek
1558Self-Portrait of Simon Bening, One of the Greatest Manuscript Illuminators of the Sixteenth Century 1559The Sacred Congregation of the Inquisition Begins Publication of the Index Librorum Prohibitorum 1559Who Discovered the Pulmonary Circulation? Servetus, Valverde or Columbo? 1560Jean Cousin the Elder Issues "Livre de perspective" 1560 – 1581Giorgio Vasari Begins Construction of the Uffizi 1560 – 1578Giambattista della Porta Founds the First Scientific Society in the Renaissance 1560Florian Trefler Builds upon Gessner's Library Classifcation Scheme Circa 1560The Codex Selden/ Codex Añute, a Precolonial Mexican Palimpsest 1561Valerius Cordus Makes the Earliest Effort to Systematize Botanical Description and Discovers Sulfuric Ether 1561Gabriele Falloppio Discovers the Fallopian Tubes and Numerous Other Anatomical Features July 2, 1561 – April 10, 1563Gaspar de Leão Issues the Earliest Surviving Books Printed in India from Movable Type 1562Conrad Gessner Issues the First Bio-Bibliography: a Study of Galen's Writings July 12, 1562Bishop Diego de Landa Orders Destruction of the Maya Codices 1563Bartholomeo Eustachi Discovers the Eustachian Tubes and Many Other Anatomical Features 1563In an Expose of the Witchcraft Delusion Johann Weyer Presents One of the First Scientific Approaches to the Study of Mental Illness 1563Giambattista della Porta Publishes the First Known Digraphic Substitution Cypher September 10, 1563Charles IX Forbids Any French Printer from Printing Without Permission, Under Penalty of Being Hanged or Strangled 1564Georg Willer Issues the First Catalogue of the Frankfurt Book Fair 1564Ivan Fedorov Issues the First Dated Book Printed in Russia Circa 1565Juanelo Turriano Creates a Working Automaton of a Monk 1565Samuel Quiccheberg Publishes the First Treatise on Museums 1566Giuseppe Arcimboldo Paints a Surrealist Portrait of the Librarian 1567Bishop Séon Carsuel Translates the Book of Common Prayer into Gaelic 1567Christophe Plantin Publishes the Earliest Description of the Printing Process 1568Archbishop Matthew Parker Assembles the First Major Antiquarian Book Collection in England 1568Jost Amman's Images of Trades and Technologies, with Descriptions in Verse 1568Benevenuto Cellini Describes Renaissance Artistic Techniques 1569 – 1570Perrissin & Tortorel Issue the First Extended Series of Prints Attempting to Depict Great Events of the Recent Past 1569 – 1570Fulvio Orsini Issues the First Critically Assembled Collection and Edition of Ancient Portraiture 1570Francisco Bravo Issues the First Medical Book Printed in the Western Hemisphere with the Earliest Illustrations of Plants Printed in the Western Hemisphere 1570Lord Mayor of London Henry Billingsley Issues One of the Earliest Pop-Up Books 1571Opening of the Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana 1572Jeremias Martius Issues Possibly the First Printed Catalogue of Any Private Library 1572 – 1573Volcher Coiter: One of the First Physicians to Draw the Illustrations for his Own Publications, and Take Credit for Them in Print 1574Book Collector Matthew Parker Donates his Library 1575Hieronymous Wolf, Librarian to Johann Jakob Fugger, Issues the First Printed Catalogue of a Portion of a Public Library 1575François de Belleforest Describes Paintings in Rouffignac Cave 1575 – 1578Discovering the Autograph Manuscript of William Bourne's Book on Military Inventions and Naval Tactics 1577Eliezer ben Isaac Ashkenazi Issues the First Book Printed in the Middle East 1579François Viète's Classic of Mathematics and Typography July 12, 1580 – August 12, 1581Ivan Fyodorov Issues First Complete Slavic Bible February 24, 1582Pope Gregory XIII Promulgates the Gregorian Calendar 1583 – 1584Michele Ruggieri Issues the First Book Written by a European in China and Printed in China 1584Ferdinando de Medici & Giovan Battista Raimundi Found the Medici Press 1584François Grudé de la Croix du Maine Issues the First French National Bibliography 1584Franz Heim Illustrates Cats Carrying Incendiary Devices in Warfare? Circa 1585 – 1616
Martín de Murúa Writes the "Historia general del Piru"
1586Blaise de Vigenère Describes What is Later Known as the Vigenère Cipher June 23, 1586The Star Chamber Court Consolidates and Amplifies the Regulation of Printing in England Circa 1587Pope Sixtus V Commissions the Design and Construction of the Vatican Library 1587 – 1592Agustín's Study of Ancient Coinage: Probably the Earliest Book with Illustrations by a Woman 1588Agostini Ramelli Describes a Renaissance Information Retrieval Device and Other Machines 1588 – 1631Sir Robert Bruce Cotton Forms One of the Most Important Private Collections of Manuscripts Ever Collected in England 1588
Pages from Orchésographie.
Using an Early Dance Notation, Jehan Tabourot Describes Late Renaissance Dance
1589William Lee Invents the Stocking Frame Knitting Machine 1590Architect Domenico Fontana Describes Moving the Obelisk 1590Pascal Lecoq Issues the First Systematic Medical Bibliography 1591 – 1600François Viète Issues the Earliest Work on Symbolic Algebra; A Tale of Two Printings 1591Israel Spach Issues the First Medical Subject Bibliography Circa 1591 – 1596The Only Manuscript Pages Thought to be in the Hand of William Shakespeare 1592 – 1593Publication of the Bills of Mortality": the Beginning of the Collection of Medical Statistics 1595Leiden University Library Issues the First Printed Catalogue of any Institutional Library 1595Andrew Maunsell Issues the First "Books in Print" 1597 – 1606Galileo Produces his "Compasso" & The First "Computer Manual" 1598Emperor Go-Yōzei Orders the Printing of the Analects of Confucius, the Oldest Surviving Work of Japanese Printing by Movable Type 1598Israel Spach Issues the Model for Subject Bibliographies 1598
Detail of head of horse from page of the Dell'anotomia [sic], et dell'infirmita del cavallo.  Click on link below to view and resize full image.
Ottavio Ruini Issues the First Book Devoted Exclusively to the Structure of an Animal Other than Man
July 6, 1599Christophorus Guyot Issues the Earliest Surviving Catalogue of a Book Auction Circa 1600
Japanese soroban abacus 1x5 from Meiji period (1868-1912).
The Japanese Adopt the Abacus, Calling it the Soroban
1600 – 1700English Book Owners in the 17th Century. A Work in Progress Listing by David Pearson 1600About 350,000 Separate Titles Were Printed by 1600 1602Matteo Ricci Issues the First European-Style World Map in Chinese & the First Chinese Map to Show the Americas 1602Justus Lipsius Issues the First "Major" History of Libraries 1602 – 1604Guillaume de Castelfranc Issues the First World Map Showing Isogonic Lines November 8, 1602 – 1605Thomas Bodley Founds The Bodleian, the First "Public" Library in England, & the First British National Library 1603 – 1605
Scheiner's Pantograph.
Christopher Scheiner Invents the Pantograph, the First Copying Device?
August 17, 1603Federico Cesi Founds the Accademia dei Lincei, the First Scientific Society 1605Johan Carolus's "Relation," the First Printed European Newspaper 1606Fray Juan Bautista Issues the First Bibliography Published in the New World 1607Galileo Presents One of the First Records of Litigation over an Invention 1608Hieronymus Hornschuch Issues the First Editor's and Printer's Manual 1608The Venetian Government Issues the First Prepaid Letter Sheets 1608Hans Lippershey Invents the Telescope 1608Odoardo Fialetti Creates Probably the First Printed Manual for Drawing Human Anatomy 1609Erasable Paper from 1609 May 20, 1609Thomas Thorpe Issues the First Edition of Shakespeare's Sonnets November 1609 – March 13, 1610Galileo Issues Images of Revolutionary Discoveries Concerning the Universe; and the Story of a Remarkable Forgery December 8, 1609Federico Borromeo Founds the Biblioteca Ambrosiana, the Second "Public" Library in Europe 1610The Maronite Monastery of St. Anthony at Qozhaya Issues the First Book Printed in the Arab World Circa 1610News Services Persist in Distributing News by Manuscript 1610 – 1612Possibly the Earliest Extant Examples of Wall-Shelving are in Duke Humfrey's Library 1610Graphic Depiction of Leiden University Library in 1610 1611
The library at Hereford Cathedral. (View Larger)
At Hereford Cathedral the Largest Historic Chained Library in the World
1611Jacques Bongars Issues the First Collection of Chronicles of the Crusades 1612Anselm Faust Writes the Earliest European Manual on Bookbinding 1613François d'Aguilon & Peter Paul Rubens Describe Optics and Color Theory 1614 – 1617
Preface page from Mirifici logarithmorum canonis descriptio, by John Napier, describing the (then) new mathematical device known as logarithms.
John Napier Invents Logarithms, Napier's Bones & the Lightning Calculating Device
1617Minsheu's "Ductor in Linguas," The First Book Sold by Subscription and the First Book to Include a List of Subscribers 1617Michael Maier Publishes Early Multimedia: Words, Images and Music 1617Hermannus Hugo Issues the First History of Writing 1618Girolamo Sirtori Issues the First Book on the Telescope June 1618"Courante uyt Italien, Duytslandt, &c.," the First Newspaper Published in Broadsheet Form 1619Petrus Caneparius Issues the First Book about Printing Inks 1619Probably the Earliest Records of the Charges for Trade Bindings in England 1620 – 1640
The Village Lawyer by Pieter Breughel the Younger.
Depiction of Record Keeping by Pieter Breughel the Younger
1621"Corante. . . ," the First Printed News Sheet or Newspaper Published in English 1621Robert Burton Publishes a Classic on Depression 1622Maximilian Donates the Bibliotheca Palatina to the Vatican May 23, 1622"News from Most Parts of Christendom," Forerunner of the Printed English Newspaper 1623Gaspard Bauhin Establishes Plant Classification Based upon General Morphology 1623Preface to the First Folio Edition of Shakespeare’s Plays by Henrie Condell and Iohn Heminge 1624"Certain News of the Present Week," the First Regularly Printed English Newspaper, Begins Publication 1624 – 1625Johannes Kepler Creates Logarithms by a New Procedure 1624Johannes Meursius Issues the First Guidebook to Athens Circa 1625 – 1665Cassiano & Carlo Antonio dal Pozzo Attempt to Record All Human Knowledge in Visual Form 1627Gabriel Naudé Issues One of the Earliest Works on Librarianship 1627
Detail from plate from of De lactibus sive lacteis venis.  Click to see and resize image of entire page.
Gasparo Aselli's Book Includes the First Color-Printed Medical Illustrations
1628Adriaan Vlacq Issues the First Complete Set of Modern Logarithms 1628
Detail from plate 1 of Exercitatio anatomica de motu cordis et sanguinis in animalibus.  Please click on link below to view and resize entire image.
William Harvey Publishes His Discovery and Experimental Proof of the Circulation of the Blood
1629Descartes Discusses the Idea of an Artificial Language 1630Francesco Stelluti Issues the First Book Containing Images of Organisms Viewed through the Microscope May 30, 1631Théophraste Renaudot Issues "La Gazette", the First French Weekly Magazine 1632William Oughtred Invents the Circular Form of Slide Rule 1632Baldassare Bonifacio Issues the First Separate Publication on Archives 1633George Herbert Publishes Some of the Earliest Printed Examples of Concrete or Shaped Poetry 1633The Earliest Multicolor Printed Book is Issued by the Ten Bamboo Studio in Nanjing August 23, 1633 – June 10, 1641
Théophraste Renaudot
Théophraste Renaudot's Conferences Predate the Royal Society
1634Introduction of Book Burning by the Hangman 1635The Earliest Documented 15th Century Printed Book in North America 1636Foundation of Harvard College, the First Institution of Higher Learning in the U.S. 1637Fermat's Last Theorem 1637"Je pense, donc je suis." July 11, 1637A Decree of the Star Chamber Concerning Printing July 11, 1637 1639Stephen Dayes Establishes the First Printing Press in North America: No Copies of the First Two Imprints Exist 1639Bernhard von Mallinckrodt Coins the Term Incunabula 1639 – 2013
Box of Pages from the Great Parchment Book (before rehousing)
"The Great Parchment Book" and Its Digital Restoration After Three Centuries
1640Stephen Daye Issues the First Book Written & Printed in North America, North of Mexico 1640Abolition of the Star Chamber Court Stimulates Publishing 1640 – 1660Sixty Printed Books and Three Newsbooks Are Ordered to be Burned 1641Ole Worm Issues the First Study of Runestones and Runic Inscriptions 1642Blaise Pascal Invents a Calculator: The Pascaline 1642Ludwig van Siegen Invents Mezzotint 1643Comandatore Geronimo Marulli Issues the First Book Printed on Malta June 16, 1643The British Government Attempts to Re-Establish Censorship 1644John Milton Issues Aereopagitica: "For Books are Not Absolutely Dead Things; but Doe Contain a Potencie of Life . . . ." 1644Michael Florent van Langren issues the Earliest Known Graph of Statistical Data 1644Louis Jacob Issues the First Extensive History of "Public" & Private Libraries 1645Abraham Bosse Issues the First Treatise on Engraving and Etching 1647Johannes Hevelius Issues the First Extensive Moon Atlas 1650John Dury Writes the First Book on Librarianship in English Circa 1650
A modern photograph of a vintage sliding stick side rule.
The Sliding Stick Form of Slide Rule
Circa 1650 – 1703
A painting of Samuel Pepys by John Hayls, 1666.
Samuel Pepys' Library: One of the Most Significant Private Libraries Preserved Intact from 17th Century England, in its Original Bookcases
1650 – 2012The Ussher Chronology: The World Was Created in 4004 BCE 1650Possibly the Earliest High-Level Printed Scientific Book Written by a Woman 1651
The title page of Le Cuisinier Francois, by Francois Pierre de La Varenne, 1680.
La Varenne Writes the Founding Text of Modern French Cuisine
A portrait of Humphrey Chetham, now in the library reading room.
Chetham's Library: the First Free Public Reference Library in the United Kingdom
1656Borel Publishes an Encrypted Notice of Huygens' Discovery of Saturn's Ring 1656Huygens Invents the Pendulum Clock, Increasing Accuracy Sixty Fold 1659Huygens Publishes his Discovery of Saturn's Ring 1659The Longest Series of Monthly Temperature Observations 1660David Teniers the Younger Publishes the First Published Illustrated Catalogue of an Art Collection 1661Joachim Becher Provides Possibly the Earliest Model for Machine Translation 1661John Evelyn Attacks Air Pollution 1661 – 1663John Eliot Issues First Complete Bible Published in the Western Hemisphere 1662Demography & Vital Statistics 1662Working Around the English Monopoly on Solid Graphite 1662
Detail of page from Decartes' De homine figuris.  Please click on link below to view and resize entire page.
Mechanistic View of the Human Body
1662The First Book on the Appreciation of Prints and the First Description of Mezzotint 1662The First Work in English on the Technique of Engraving and Etching 1664Argument for Forest Management 1664The Earliest Bibliography of Bibliographies 1664The First English Publication Entirely on Printing 1665Robert Hooke's Graphic Portrayal of the Hitherto Unknown Microcosm 1665 – 1666Jacques Raveneau Issues the First Book on the Detection of Forged Documents January 5, 1665Journal des sçavans: The First Scientific Journal Begins Publication March 6, 1665The Oldest Continuous Journal of an Academy of Science Begins Publication April 1665 – September 1666
A scanning electron micrograph depicting a mass of Yersinia pestis bacteria, which is the cause of the Bubonic Plague.
The Great Plague of London
1666Michel de Marolles Writes the First Book on Print Collecting 1666Jean Talon Conducts the First Census in North America 1666Joachim Johann Maders Issues the First Anthology on Libraries and Library Science 1666The First Treatise on Chemistry Written by a Woman September 2 – September 5, 1666The Great Fire of London 1667The First Medical or Scientific Publication in North America, Known from a Single Surviving Copy August 17, 1667Construction of Samuel Pepys's Bookshelves -- Among the Earliest Extant 1668Description of the "Mathematical Organ" 1668John Wilkins Creates A Universal Language Based on a Classification Scheme or Ontology, and a Universal System of Measurement 1668
Frontpiece detail from Les maladies des femmes grosses et accouchées.  Please click on link below to view and resize image of entire page.
François Mauriceau Founds the Science of Obstetrics
1670"On the Burning of a Library": A Work of Self-Consolation 1670The First Print Surviving from New England 1671
Pierre Petit's Arithmetic Cylinder.
More Affordable and Easier to Use than the Pascaline
Title page of Samuel Morland's The Discription and Use of Two Arithmetick Instruments.
The First Book on a Calculating Machine Published in English
1673 – 1710Leibniz Invents the Stepped Drum Gear Calculator 1673The Mathematical Analysis of Pendulum Motion 1674The World's Oldest Auction House is Founded 1675The Beginning of Palaeography 1675Laws of Book Production and the Book Trade 1676The First Bibliography of Rare Books 1676The First Book on the Classification of Birds Without Respect to Geographical Boundaries October 31, 1676The First Book Auction in England 1677The First Map Engraved and Published in New England 1677Precursor of Malthus 1678The First Published Rules for Archival Operation? June 25, 1678The First Doctoral Degree is Awarded to a Woman March 15, 1679 – 1705Leibniz on Binary Arithmetic April 1 – December 1680The World's First Postage Stamp from the First Postal Service to Allow Registration and Pre-Payment 1681Foundation of Palaeography and Diplomatics 1681The First Scientific Book Written by a Native Latin American to be Published in the Western Hemisphere 1683 – 1684Joseph Moxon Issues the First Comprehensive Printing Manual 1684What the Journeyman Printer Needs for Ready Reference 1684The First Publication on the Differential Calculus 1684 – 1692The First Hieroglyphic Bible for Children 1684Aristotle's Masterpiece 1684 – 1718The First Book Review Journal: an Early Long-Distance Intellectual Community and Social Network 1685
Plate from Bidloo's Anatomia humani corporis. Please click on the link below to view and resize full page. 
Anatomy in the Style of Dutch Still-Life Painting
1685 – 1706Locke's Method of Indexing Commonplace Books 1687Newton's Principia Mathematica 1687 – 1690The First Reading Primer Designed for the American Colonies 1688The First Attempt to Collect and Organize the Literature of Early Printing 1688The First Independently Published Bibliography of Mathematics April 1688The First American Public Document to Protest Slavery and One of the First Written Public Declarations of Universal Human Rights 1690The First Paper Mill in the United States 1690"Political Arithmetick": Application of Statistics to Economic Theory and Policy 1690Huygens's Wave or Pulse Theory of Light September 25, 1690"Publick Occurrences, Both Foreign and Domestic," the First Newspaper Published in North America, Suppressed after a Single Issue 1691 – 1694The First Map of All of New Spain 1692The Bibliotheque du Roi Opens to the Public 1693The Breslau Tables 1693The First Book Catalogue Published in America 1693Jean Imberdis Publishes First Book on the Manufacture of Paper 1695The End of Pre-Publication Censorship Stimulates Newspapers and Other Publishing May 13, 1696The First Licensed Woman Printer in North America Was Illiterate 1697The First Country-Wide Printed Union Catalogue of Manuscripts 1697The First Printed Facsimile of a Manuscript 1698First Public Lending Library in North America 1698Baroque Anatomy and Plagiarism (?) 1698A Visionary Library Cataloguing Scheme That Was Not Realized 1699There Are 150 Paper Mills in England 1699A Universal Bibliography, but Only for "A and B" 1699The Structural Relationships between the Body of Man and the Anthropoid Ape 1700Raoul Feuillet Publishes the Beauchamp-Feuillet Dance Notation 1700
Title page from De morbis artificium diatriba.
Bernardino Ramazzini Founds Occupational Medicine and Ergonomics
1701 – 1725Friedrich Ruysch's Anatomical Preparations: Surrealism Centuries Before Surrealism Became Fashionable 1701 – 2012Popol Vuh, The Book of the People, Known from a Single Manuscript March 11, 1702"Daily Courant," England's First Daily Newspaper Begins Publication 1704Opticks: Isaac Newton's Theories of Light & Color . . . 1704 – 1710John Harris Issues the First English Encyclopedia Arranged in Alphabetical Order April 24, 1704"Boston News-Letter," the First "Successful" Newspaper in North America June 8, 1705Edmond Halley Predicts "Halley's Comet" 1706 Athanasius al-Dabbas Publishes the First Books Printed in Arabic in the Middle East July – December 1706The Bigot Sale, the First Book Auction Conducted in Paris for Which a Catalogue was Printed 1708Bernard de Montfaucon's "Palaeographia Graeca" Coins the Word Palaeography 1708Johan Gottfried Zeidler Issues the Earliest Printed Technical Manual on Bookbinding 1709The Statute of Anne: The First Copyright Statute 1710Paul Pater Issues Perhaps the Earliest Treatise on the Typography of a Nation 1710 – 1712Thomas Newcomen Invents the First Atmospheric Steam Pumping Engine 1711First Publication of Newton's Early Writings on the Calculus 1712The Newton - Leibniz Dispute over Invention of the Calculus 1713White Kennett Issues the First Bibliography of Americana 1713Johann Christian Koch Issues the First History of Library Classification Systems November 12, 1713 – 1770Early Government Incentive for Scientific Research 1714Henrich Gottleib Titz Writes about the Theuerdanck: Probably the First Monograph on a Single Rare Book 1716Johann Conrad Zeitner Describes Famous Proofreaders and Press Correctors 1718 – 1721Lombe's Silk Throwing Mill: The First Factory 1719 – 1725Jacob Christophe Le Blon Invents the Three-Color Process of Color Printing November 28, 1721Crime and Punishment during the Ancien Regime: The Arrest, Trial and Execution of Cartouche and his Cour des Miracles Gang 1723Martin-Dominique Fertel Issues the First Major French Manual on Printing and the First Book on Book Design 1723James Jurin Issues One of the Earliest Applications of Statistics to a Socio-Medical Problem 1723 – 1743The Bernard-Picard Collaboration: the First Global View of Religion 1725Abraham de Moivre Formulates the Theory of Annuities 1725Luigi Marsigli Issues the First Book Entirely Devoted to Marine Science and First Oceanographic Study of a Single Region 1725Johann Joseph Fux Describes Baroque Counterpoint 1726Jonathan Swift Creates a Fictional Device that Resembles a Modern Computer 1727Sultan Ahmet III Permits Printing of Secular Topics in Istanbul While Protecting its More than 4000 Scribes 1728Johann David Köhler Issues the First Anthology of Library Classification, Organization and Cataloguing Schemes 1729Ibrahim Müteferrika Issues the First Book Printed by Muslims Using Movable Type 1729 – 1747Mark Catesby Publishes the First Natural History of North American Flora and Fauna 1729Ibrahim Müteferikka Issues the First Illustrated Book Printed by Muslims 1729Isaac Greenwood Issues the First American Textbook on Mathematics 1731 – 1742Jacques Vaucanson's Automata: Complex Enough to Provide a Credible Imitation of Life January 1731Edward Cave Founds "The Gentleman's Magazine," the First General-Interest Periodical and the First to Use the Word "Magazine" to Indicate a Storehouse of Knowledge July 1, 1731Benjamin Franklin & Friends Found the Library Company of Philadelphia, the First Lending Library in America 1734The Capitoline Museums, the First Public Museums, Open in Rome 1735Carl Linnaeus Issues "Systema Naturae" 1736 – 1741Albinus & Ladmiral Issue the First Full Color Printing by the Three-Color Process to Illustrate a Medical or Scientific Book 1736Leonhard Euler Publishes the Problem of the Konigsberg Bridges: The Birth of Network Science 1737Pierre-Simon Fournier le Jeune Publishes the Point System or Typographic Unit 1737 – 1738Thomas Osborne Issues "The British Librarian", the First Periodical Published in English on Rare Books & Manuscripts 1738Johan Adam Schmid Issues the First "Full-Fledged Antiquarian Bookseller's Catalogue" 1738Cruden's Concordance, Possibly the Largest Task of Compilation Ever Undertaken by One Man 1739Bernard de Montfaucon Issues the First Continent-Wide Union Catalogue of Manuscripts 1739William Ged's Issues an Incunabulum of Printing from Stereotype Plates 1740Johan Christoph Wolf Issues the First Bibliography of the History of Printing 1741 – 1753Christoph Ernst Prediger Issues the First Exhaustive Manual on Bookbinding 1741 – 1750Rumphius's "Herbarium Ambonense" is Posthumously Published January 1741"American Magazine" & "The General Magazine," the First Magazines Published in North America: Both Very Short-Lived 1742Johann Peter Süssmilch Proves the Need for a Healthy and Industrious Population 1742Johann Christoph Heilbronner Publishes One of the Earliest Histories of a Science February 18, 1743Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici Founds the Greatest Museums of Florence 1744 – 1745
Pierre Louis Maupertuis
Pierre-Louis Moreau de Maupertuis' Pioneer Theory of Epigenesis and Biparental Heredity
April 1744 – May 1746Eliza Haywood's "The Female Spectator", the First Periodical Written for Women by a Woman April 11, 1744Benjamin Franklin Issues the First American Trade Catalogues June 18, 1744John Newberry Issues the First Printed Book Specifically for the Amusement of Children: No Copies of the First Edition Survive 1746 – 1760Antoine Deparcieux Issues the First "Correct" Life Tables 1747Bernhard Siegfried Albinus' Cool, Elegant Aesthetic of Anatomy 1747Hannah Glasse's "The art of Cookery", Probably the Most-Widely Read English Cookery Book of the 18th Century 1749 – 1814"Descriptions des Arts et Métiers": Mechanical and Industrial Arts of 18th Century France Circa 1750Printing about 200 Sheets per Hour 1750Raimondo di Sangro Issues the First Extensive Treatise on the Peruvian Knot-Based Counting Language, the Quipu 1751 – 1780Diderot & d'Alembert's Encyclopédie, the Central Enterprise of the French Enlightenment 1751 – 1828Edme-François Gersaint Issues the First Significant Catalogue Raisonné in Western Art History, on Rembrandt's Prints 1753Linnaeus Develops Binomial Nomenclature for Plants January 11, 1753The British Museum is Founded 1754Jean-Jacques Barthélemy Achieves the First Significant Decipherment of an Ancient Script: Palmyrene May 9, 1754The First American Political Cartoon: "JOIN, or DIE." 1755Thomas Simpson Publishes the Earliest Formal Treatment of "Data-Processing" 1755"The First Treatise on Economics" by Richard Cantillon is Posthumously Published 1755Diderot on Information Overload, and the Encyclopedia as a Means of Organizing and Enhancing Associations in Knowledge 1756The Tallard Sale: A New Level of Connoisseurship in the Cataloguing of Works of Art 1757George II Donates the "Old Royal Library" May 5, 1757A Typographic Masterpiece, John Baskerville's First Book & the First Book Printed Partially on Wove Paper 1758Linnaeus Introduces Binomial Nomenclature for Animals 1758Barthélemy Deciphers the Phoenician Language 1759The British Museum Opens 1759Voltaire Issues "Candide, ou l'Optimism" Anonymously and Secretively 1759 – 1767Laurence Sterne's "Tristram Shandy": Philosophical and Comedic Digressions and Innovative Illustration Techniques October 6, 1759 – 1760The First Book Printed Entirely on Wove Paper Circa 1760 – 1780The Copiale Cipher is Decrypted: Initiation into a Secret Society of Oculists 1760John Mitchell Issues the First Scientific Explanation of Tsunamis April 21, 1760The First Contemporary Art Exhibition in England is Accompanied by a Catalogue 1761Astronomer Jérôme Lefrançois de Lalande Writes the First Comprehensive Treatise on Papermaking 1761 – 1762Frank Nichols Publishes Probably the First Color-Printed Illustrations in a Major Scientific Periodical 1761 – 1763Barthélemy Discovers the Relationship of Egyptian Hieroglypics to Phoenician and Greek 1763Bayes's Theorem for Calculating Inverse Probabilities 1763Jean-Vincent Capronnier Gauffecourt Issues the First Separately Printed French Treatise on Bookbinding 1763 – 1782Bookseller Guillaume François de Bure Begins "Modern" Rare Book Cataloguing 1764James Hargreaves Invents the Spinning Jenny 1764 – 1766Pierre-Simon Fournier Issues an Influential Manual of Types and Typefounding 1764William Caslon Issues the First Type Specimen Book from an English Type Foundry 1765 – 1788James Watt's Key Inventions Make the Steam Engine Practical 1765Joseph Priestley Issues the First Biographical Timeline Chart January 30, 1765 – 1771Jacob Christian Schäffer Issues "The Most Interesting and Rarest Work" on Papermaking 1766Computing the Nautical Almanac, Called the "Seaman's Bible" 1766Aristotle's Complete Masterpiece: Probably the Earlest Illustrated Medical Book Published in the American Colonies 1768 – 1774The Jacquet-Droz Automata 1768 – 1771Von Heineken Issues the First Systematic Guide to Collecting Prints, Blockbooks, and the Earliest Printed books December 1768 – 1771Encyclopaedia Britannica Begins 1769 – 1775Richard Arkwright Invents his Spinning Machine: Mass Production Instigating Disruptive Economic & Social Change in the Industrial Revolution 1769 – 1836Von Kempelen "Invents" the Chess-Playing Turk & Edgar Allan Poe Compares it to Babbage's Difference Engine No. 1 1769 – 1794The French Book Trade in Enlightenment Europe 1769 – 1770Joseph Priestley Issues the Most Influential Historical Timeline of the Eighteenth Century 1769 – 1774James Granger Inspires "Grangerizing," A Mania for Extra-Illustration 1769Graphic Representation of the Organization of the Encyclopédie 1770The Earliest Large-Scale Data-Processing Organization April 15, 1770Joseph Priestley & Edward Nairne Invent the Rubber Eraser? 1772Wilhelm Haas Builds Key Parts of the Handpress out of Iron 1772Joseph Priestley Discovers that Growing Plants Restore Air Vitiated by Combustion or Respiration 1773 – 1782The Siku Quanshu: Probably the Most Ambitious Editorial Enterprise before the Wikipedia 1774"Kaitai Shinsho" : The First Book on Western Medicine and Science Published in Japanese 1775Didot Revises Fournier's Point System for Typographic Units April 17, 1775The American Revolutionary War Begins 1776Adam Smith's Classic of "Laissez-Faire" July 4 – August 2, 1776
Detail of the Declaration of Independence of the United States.  Please click on link to view and resize entire image.
The Declaration of Independence is Approved and Printed
1777The Earliest Directory of the Book Trade? 1777Zimmerman Issues the First Textbook on Zoogeography 1777Georg Christoph Lichtenberg Describes "Lichtenberg Figures" 1777 – 1787Mesmer & the Animal Magnetism Movement: An Archive November 15, 1777 – March 1, 1781The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union 1778
Detail from cover of Chemische Annalen für die Freunde der Naturlehre, Arzneygelahrtheit, Haushaltungskunst und Manufacturen.  Please click on the link below to view and resize the full image.
Lorenz von Crell Begins Publication of "Chemische Annalen", the First Chemistry Journal
1779Ingen-Housz Discovers Photosynthesis 1779
Detail of plate from Gamelin's Nouveau recueil d'ostéologie et de myologie, dessin‚ d'après nature. . . pour l'utilit‚ des sciences et des arts..  Please click on link below to view and resize full image.
Jacques Gamelin Issues an Anatomy for Artists including Fantastical Elements
1780Jean-Étienne Guettard Issues the First National Geological Atlas Circa 1782Léonard Defrance Creates Panel Paintings of the Operations of a French Enlightenment Printing Shop 1782Charles-Joseph Panckoucke Issues the Prospectus for a Monumental European Encyclopedia 1782 – 1832An Encyclopedia in 206 Thick Volumes but No Comprehensive Index! 1782Charles de Fourcroy Publishes Early Graphic Representation of Statistics 1783 – 1784Barthélemy Faujas de Saint-Fond Reports on the First Aerial Voyages 1783 – 1785Noah Webster Reforms the Teaching of English in the United States 1784 – 1785"Paper Architect" Etienne-Louis Boullée Envisages In One Gigantic Reading Room the Entire "Memory of the World" 1784 – 1804The First Book Printed on Machine-Made Paper, the First Book Printed on a Stanhope Press, & the First Book Printed by the Foulis & Tilloch Method of Stereotyping, as Improved by Earl Stanhope 1784John Mitchell is the First to Study the Effect of Gravity on Light 1784Thomas Astle Issues the First English History of Paleography and Diplomatics 1784Abel Buell Issues the First Map of the United States Printed in the United States 1784 – 1791Johann Gottfried von Herder, Enlightenment Precursor of Evolution by Natural Selection February 9, 1784 – 1805Mozart's Autograph Catalogue of His Own Compositions, and its First Printed Editions 1785Origin of "The Times" of London 1785William Withering Proves the Clinical Value of Digitalis 1785 – 1786William Playfair Founds Statistical Graphics, and Invents the Line Chart and Bar Chart 1785John Pendred Issues the Earliest Directory of the Book Trade in England Circa 1785Oliver Evans Builds the First Automated Flour Mill: Origins of the Integrated and Automated Factory 1785The Whitebread Engine, the Earliest Surviving Rotative Steam Engine Built by Boulton & Watt 1786Samuel Taylor Develops the First System of Shorthand Used Throughout the English Speaking World 1786Richard Payne Knight Records Early Archaeological Explorations of Ancient Fertility Rites February 2, 1786 – 1788William Jones Founds Comparative Linguistics 1787The First Catalogue of the British Museum Library is Published May 22, 1787 – 1807Foundation of the Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade September 17, 1787 – June 21, 1788
Detail from The Constitution of the United States. Please click on the link below to view and resize full image.
The Constitution of the United States
1788The Beginnings of Papyrology 1789 – 1792Christopher Colles Issues the First Road Atlas of the United States 1789Antoine Laurent Lavoisier, Martyr to Chemistry 1789Zefirino Campanini Writes the First Italian Printing Manual January 23 – July 14, 1789Bastille Day Occurs August 26 – August 27, 1789
Detail of Déclaration des droits de l'Homme et du citoyen by Jean-Jacques le Barbier.  Please click on link below to view and resize entire image.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
September 25, 1789 – December 15, 1791The Bill of Rights 1790Foundation of the Archives nationales de France 1790 – 1841The Early Development of the Mechanized or Machine Press as Conceptualized by Nicholson and Developed by Koenig as Others 1790 – 1802André-Charles Caillot Issues a Bibliographical Guide to Antiquarian Bookselling and Collecting, with a Pioneering Exposition on Rarity 1790Death by Printing Press in Stockholm April 10 – July 31, 1790George Washington Founds the U.S. Patent System August 2, 1790The First U.S. Census is Taken 1791Von Kempelen Builds the First Successful Speech Synthesizer 1791Earliest Precursor to the Dust Jacket? 1791The First National Code of Descriptive Cataloging--Early Use of Cards in Cataloging Books 1791François-Xavier Laire Writes the First Catalogue of Incunabula Resembling Modern Bibliographies January 24, 1791Jeremy Belknap Founds the First Historical Society in the United States February 18, 1791Thomas Jefferson Describes Printing as a Way to Preserve Information March 2, 1791 – 1794The Optical Telegraph: Faster than a Messenger on Horseback September 27, 1791Jews Receive Full Citizenship in France December 5, 1791Alexander Hamilton Issues "The Magna Carta of Industrial America" Circa 1792 – 1819Jacob Perkins Invents Steel Engraving 1793The Bibliothèque nationale de France Becomes the First Free Public National Library 1793 – 1801de Prony Produces Mathematical Tables Calculated by Hairdressers Unemployed after the French Revolution 1793 – 1794Henri Grégoire Proposes a National Bibliography of France 1793The "First Printer of National Liberty" Issues the Printing Manual for the French Revolution 1793 – 1794The Metric System is Promulgated 1793Christian Konrad Sprengel Issues the Founding Work of Floral Ecology 1794Lazaro Spallanzani Discovers Echolocation or Biosonar 1795Isaiah Thomas Issues the First American Book Printed on Wove Paper 1795Nicholas Jacques Conté Invents Modern Pencil Lead 1795Friedrich August Wolf Argues that the Poetry of Homer Shoud be Studied as a Product of Oral Tradition 1795 – 1809Carl Friedrich Gauss & Adrien-Marie Legendre Discover the Method of Least Squares 1795Gottfried Erich Rosenthal Issues the First Comprehensive Bibliography of Technology 1796 – 1819Alois Senefelder Invents & Develops Lithography 1796Amerlia Simmons Writes the First American Cookbook Written by an American 1796Binny & Ronaldson Open the First American Type Foundry 1797Giovanni Battista Venturi Begins Scientific and Art Historical Studies on Leonardo da Vinci 1798 – 1840Frenchman Louis-Nicolas Robert Invents the First Papermaking Machine, but it is Developed in England by John Gamble, the Fourdriniers & John Dickinson 1798Tsar Paul I Suppresses Private Printing in Russia 1798 – 1799Napoleon's Imprimerie Nationale, the First Printing Presses in Africa since 1516 1798Malthus on Population 1798The First Official National Industrial Exposition Occurs in Paris 1798 – 1799Pajot des Charmes Introduces Bleach in Paper Production, Facilitating Recycling of Paper 1799 – 1827Pierre-Simon Laplace Issues "Traité de méchanique céleste" Circa 1800By this Stage in the Industrial Revolution All Phases of Cloth Production Are Performed by Machines 1800Phasing Out Latin as the International Language Circa 1800Earl Stanhope Invents the First Completely Iron Printing Press Circa 1800 – 1820The Gradual Disappearance of the Long S in Typography 1800 – 1802Mathias Koops Issues the First Book Printed on Recycled Paper, with an Appendix Printed on Paper Made from Wood Pulp Circa 1800Maillardet's Automaton Circa 1800 – 1840Economic & Technological Advances Spur the Development of Newspapers in the U.S. April 24, 1800President John Adams Signs Initial Funding of the Library of Congress 1801The First Edition of the Qur'an Printed by Muslims is Issued in Kazan 1801 – 1821Joseph-Marie Jacquard's Loom Uses Punched Cards to Store Patterns 1801The First Census of England, Scotland and Wales is Undertaken 1801Karl Friedrich Gauss, the Prince of Mathematicians, Issues Disquisitiones arithmeticae 1801William Playfair Invents the Pie Chart 1801
A portrait of Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck
Lamarck Issues the First Published Statement of Lamarckism
December 18, 1801First Report on the Organization of the Library of Congress 1802 – 1818François Antoine Rauch Writes in Harmony with the Modern Ecology Movement 1802Bowditch Issues the "New American Practical Navigator" 1802George Howe Issues the First Book Printed in Australia April 1802 – October 1803The First Catalogue of the Library of Congress is Published 1803Joseph Jérôme de Lalande Compiles the First Major Chronological Bibliography of Any Science March 5, 1803George Howe Begins Publication of the "Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser", the First Newspaper in Australia April 1803 – March 1804The First World Atlas Printed by Muslims November 30, 1803Francisco Javier de Balmis Undertakes the First International Health-Care Expedition 1804Nicholas-Théodore de Saussure Demonstrates that the Carbon Content of Soil is Produced by Vegetation 1804 – 1805The First Practical Manual on Antiquarian Bookselling 1805Adrien-Marie Legendre Publishes the Method of Least Squares 1805Humboldt & Bonpland Describe Geographical-Ecological Plant Associations 1806 – 1821Méchain, Delambre, Biot & Arago Calculate the Meter (Metre) Scientifically 1806 – 1828Noah Webster Compiles the First Dictionary of American English 1806Ralph Wedgwood Invents Carbon Paper January 10, 1806The First Illustration is Printed in "The Times" of London 1807William Wilberforce Crusades for the Abolition of Slavery in the British Empire 1807 – 1812Thomas Cobb Invents a Machine for Manufacturing Paper in Separate Sheets June 9, 1807John Thomas Smith Publishes the First Steel-Engraved and the First Lithographed Book Illustrations 1808 – 1827John Dalton Publishes the First Periodic Table of the Elements 1809 – 1810George Cayley Founds Aerodynamics & Invents the Airplane 1809Binny & Ronaldson Issue the First American Type Specimen 1809
A portrait of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck by Charles Thévenin
Lamarck's Most Extensive Exposition of his Theory of the Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics
1810Nicholas Appert Issues the First Book on Modern Food Preservation Methods 1810 – 1865Brunet Compiles "Manuel du libraire," "The Best and Last of the General Rare Book Bibliographies" 1811The First English Book Entirely on Bookbinding 1811The First Papermaking Machine is Set Up in France November 11, 1811 – January 12, 1813The Ludd Riots Occur June 16, 1812The Roxburghe Club, the Oldest Society of Bibliophiles is Founded 1813 – 1817Clymer's Columbian Press, Perhaps the First Great American Contribution to Printing Technology 1813John William Lewin Issues the First Illustrated Book Published in Australia 1814Joseph Adams Issues a Pioneering Work on Medical Genetics August 25, 1814The Library of Congress is Destroyed During the War of 1812 Circa September 1814Thomas Jefferson's Library Becomes the Core of the New Library of Congress September – November 1814Francis Scott Key Issues "The Star Spangled Banner" 1815The First Literary Magazine is Published in the United States January 1815Congress Buys Thomas Jefferson's Library November 1815George Watterson Issues the First Extensive Catalogue of the Library of Congress 1816Francis Ronalds Builds the First Working Electric Telegraph 1816"Egyptian": The First Commercially Produced Sans-Serif Typeface 1816 – 1818Edward Cowper Introduces Key Steps in Speeding up Cylinder Printing 1817David Ricardo Explains the Distribution of Wealth, Including How it Applies to the Value of Rare Books 1817The First Book is Printed in Persia (Iran) 1817Thomas Gilpin Sets Up the First Papermaking Machine in America, & the First Items Printed on his Machine-Made Paper June 12, 1817Karl Drais Invents the Two-Wheeled Bicycle- the First Personalized Mechanical Transport 1818William Charles Wells Publishes the First Recognizable Statement of the Theory of Natural Selection 1818Cornelius Van Winkle Issues the First American Printer's Manual 1818 – 1824Mairet Issues a Manual of Lithography, Bookbinding, and Cleaning and Restoring Paper 1819James Watt's Workshop, a Time-Capsule of Technology 1819
William Lawrence
William Lawrence Describes the Natural History of Man
1819 – 1829The Earliest Known Dust Jacket 1819The First Prayer Book of Reform Judaism July 1819The First Lithograph Printed in the United States December 1, 1819Foundation of the First Business School 1820
Charles Xavier Thomas' Arithometer.
The Thomas Arithmometer, the First Commercially Produced Mechanical Calculator
1820"The Book of Life: A Bibliographical Melody" 1820 – 1822The Hetton Colliery Railway, the First Railway that Uses No Animal Power 1821 – 1825The Earliest Publisher's Cloth Bindings, Issued by William Pickering February 22, 1821Foundation of the Ecole nationale des chartes 1822Babbage Begins Construction of his Difference Engine No. 1 1822The Fourier Series 1822
Title page of Illustrations and Proofs of the Principle of Population: Including an Examination of the Proposed Remedies of Mr. Malthus, and a Reply to the Objections of Mr. Godwin and Others.
Francis Place Founds the Birth Control Movement
1822William Church Invents the First Machine for Type Composition 1822The First American Book with Lithographed Illustrations September 22, 1822Champollion Deciphers Egyptian Hieroglyphs December 1822The First Indigenous Arabic Press in Egypt December 20, 1822Invention of the Mechanical Pencil 1823The Contributions of Thomas Young Toward Deciphering Egyptian Hieroglyphs 1823 – 1826The Double Publication of the Double Elephant Folio of Anatomy 1823William Clowes Introduces High Speed Printing in Book Production 1824"The Harrisburg Pennsylvanian" Conducts the First Opinion Poll 1824First Description of the Greenhouse Effect 1824Foundation of Animal Ecology 1825 – 1842The English Church Missionary Society Establishes a Press in Malta to Print Books in Arabic & Turkish Circa 1825Roughly 600 Books Year are Produced in the U.K. 1825 – 1869The First Tentative Assertion of the Antiquity of Man in England September 27, 1825The First Publically Subscribed Passenger Railroad November 7, 1825"Diario de Pernambuco", The First Newspaper Published in South America 1826Babbage Describes the Logic and Operation of Machinery by Means of Notation 1826The First Ecological Experiment; Source of Darwin's Principle of Divergence 1826 – 1827The Earliest Surviving Photograph: A Process that Never "Caught On" 1827Discovery of the Mammalian Ovum 1827The First "Leaf Book" 1827William Burn Invents The Rolling Press for Bookbinders, the First Machine Used in the Bookbinding Trade 1828Discovery of Brownian Motion 1828The First "Livre d'Artiste," Illustrated by Delacroix July 4, 1828 – May 24, 1830The First Common Carrier Railroad in the United States 1829 – September 15, 1830The First Inter-City Passenger Railway Hauled by Steam Locomotives, Reaching 24 Miles Per Hour 1829The First U.S. Steam Locomotive 1829The Braille System of Printing and Reading for the Blind 1829
Replica of Burt Typographer.
Typing a Letter Takes Longer than Writing by Hand
1829 – 1830 Nicolai Ivanovitch Lobachevskii Invents Non-Euclidean Geometry 1829The First Illustrated Antiquarian Bookseller's Catalogue 1830 – 1853The First Attempt Since that of Montfaucon (1739) to Publish a Union Catalogue of Manuscripts in European Libraries 1831The Basis for Electricity Generation 1831Identified on his Calling Cards as "The Discoverer of Natural Selection" 1831Writer & Publisher Charles Knight Explains How Mechanized Printing Delivers Information Faster & at Costs Affordable to All 1832 – 1835Babbage's "On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures" Begins Operations Research 1832Yisrael & Nissan Bak Operate the First Press in Palestine Since About 1577 1832 – 1833Janos Bolyai Independently Invents Non-Euclidean Geometry 1832Rafinesque Deciphers the Mayan System of Counting 1832 – 1837The First Lithographed Books Printed in Persia are Issued 1832 – 1845Exploiting the New Technology of Mechanized Printing, Charles Knight Publishes "The Penny Magazine," Britain's First Low Priced Mass-Circulation Magazine 1832The Earliest Known Printed Dust Jacket (Now Lost) 1832 – 1834The Phenakistoscope, the First Device to Demonstrate the Illusion of a Moving Image 1832 – 1834One of the First Applications of Spatial Analysis in Epidemology January 1832 – 1833John Murray's "The Works of Lord Byron", the First Gilt-Stamped Cloth Edition Bindings September 1832Korsakov is Probably the First to Use Punched Cards for Information Processing and Storage 1833William Whewell Coins the Term "Scientist" 1833The First Great American Contribution to Physiology 1834 – 1841Theory of the Ice Age; Global Cooling and Warming 1834 – 1835The First Commercially Viable Method of Color Printing 1835Quetelet's Statistical Study of the "Average Man" 1835 – 1879The First Manuals to Discuss "Machine Printing" as a Reflection of the Spread of New Technology 1835The First Complete Printed Edition in Arabic of the Thousand and One Nights 1836The First Comprehensive Guide to Collecting Autographs 1836Coriolis Solves Differential Equations Using a Mechanical Device 1836Origins of the National Library of Medicine 1836Probably the First Book on a Secular Subject Printed in Arabic in Middle East 1836Christian Thomsen Founds the "Three-Age" System in Archaeology 1837Origins of the Morse Code 1837 – 1840The Penny Post: Perhaps the Greatest Single Stimulus to Written Communication 1837 – 1871Sir Thomas Phillipps, the Greatest Private Collector of Manuscripts in the 19th Century, and Maybe Ever 1837Pitman Shorthand, & The First "Correspondence Course" July 25, 1837 – January 1, 1845Ronalds, Cooke & Wheatstone Develop the First Commercial Electric Telegraph 1838Mathematical Model of a Continuously Growing Population 1838Foundation of the Public Record Office 1838Foundation of the Cell Theory 1838 – 1845Charles Knight Invents "Illuminated Printing" & Offers Printed Color Plates at a Low Price for the Mass Market 1839
Portrait of Jacquard woven in silk on a Jacquard loom.
The Most Famous Image in the Early History of Computing
1839Foundation of the First Parcel Express Agency in the U.S. January 7 – August 19, 1839Daguerreotypes: The First Commonly Used Photographic Process January 31, 1839The First Separate Publication on Photography Circa October 1839Perhaps the First "Selfie" Photograph October 19 – October 25, 1839George Bradshaw Issues the First Railway Timetable 1840 – 1843Luigi Menabrea Publishes the First Computer Programs, Designed for Babbage's Analytical Engine. Ada Lovelace Translates them Into English 1840Probably the World's Oldest Picture Postcard 1840 – 1842Young & Delcambre's "Pianotype" : The First Composing Machine That Was Actually Used, and the First Books Printed from its Typesetting 1840Exceptionally Wide Commemoration of the Quatercentenary of Gutenberg 1840Production of the First Protein Crystals May 1, 1840The Penny Black June 1840Cantata by Mendelssohn to Honor Gutenberg 1841Charles MacKay Issues an Exposition of Financial Bubbles 1841Panizzi's 91 Rules for Standardizing the Cataloguing of Books 1841The First American Book with Chromolithographed Illustrations October 1841 – October 25, 1845The Invention of Anastatic Printing Enables Inexpensive Facsimiles and Pirated Editions 1842The Basis for Blueprints 1842Christian Doppler States the Doppler Principle (Doppler Shift, Doppler Effect) 1842
A portrait of Japetus Steenstrup 
Steenstrup's Theory of Alternation of Generations or Metagenesis
May 14, 1842"The Illustrated London News", the First Fully Illustrated Weekly Newspaper, Begins Publication December 17, 1842"Family Herald", The First Periodical Typeset, Printed and Bound Entirely by Machine, Begins Publication 1843 – 1857The Contributions of the Scheutz Brothers to the Early History of Difference Engines and the Calculating and Printing of Mathematical Tables 1843 – 1844One of the Earliest Photographs of Books 1843 – 1846Neptune: The First Planet Discovered by Mathematical Rather than Observational Means: Discovered Simultaneously by Le Verrier and Adams 1843 – 1865Possibly the First Book Written During Hand Typesetting Rather than on Paper April 7, 1843Michael Faraday on Decay in Leather Bookbindings May 1, 1843The First Commercial Christmas Card October 1843The First Published Computer Programs, Translated and Augmented by Lord Byron's Daughter October 1843 – 1853The First Book Illustrated with Photographs October 1, 1843"The News of the World", a Newspaper for the Newly Literate Working Classes, Begins Publication 1844The First Full-Length Exposition in English of an Evolutionary Theory of Biology is Published Anonymously 1844 – 1845Foundation of Microphotography; Landmark in Hematology, Oncology, and Pathology May 24, 1844Morse Transmits the First Message by Morse Code June 1844 – April 1846The First Photographically Illustrated Book Commercially Published. October 26, 1844 – August 1845Friedrich Keller Rediscovers Paper Making from Wood Pulp & Industrializes the Process 1845The First Annotated Bibliography of the History of Economics August 14, 1845Mechanization of Punch-Cutting for Printing Types 1846The Horizontal Rotary Press Accelerates Printing 1846Beginning of the American Conservation Movement 1846 – 1849Boucher de Perthes' Pioneering Treatise on the Antiquity of Man 1846Alfred Bonnardot Issues the First Book on the Restoration of Rare Books and their Bindings 1846 – 1849First Installments of the First Government-Sponsored National Union Catalogue of Manuscripts 1846The First Periodical Issued With a Mounted Paper Photograph October 16 – November 18, 1846Discovery of Surgical Anesthesia December 1, 1846The Introduction of Anesthesia in Obstetrics 1847Sending Weather Information by Telegraph 1847 – 1854George Boole Develops Boolean Algebra 1847The First Scientific Instrument to Record Scientific Information in Real Time 1847The First Separately Published Bibliography on the History of Science 1847The Earliest Photographs of War 1847The Relationship Between Optical Activity, Crystalline Structure and Chemical Composition 1847 – 1965Aspects of Concordance Production Before and During the Early Years of Computerization September 30, 1847Marsh's First Publication on Ecology 1848The First Publically Supported Municipal Library in the U.S. 1848The Associated Press is Founded 1848The First Mechanical Printing Press Arrives in Japan 1848Spencerian Script Begins 1848Foundation of the Boston Public Library February 1848The French Revolution of 1848 in Europe's Year of Revolutions February 21, 1848The Communist Manifesto May 30, 1848The First of the Industrial Insurance Companies that Processed Immense Amounts of Data November 1, 1848The Railroad also Becomes an Information Distribution Network 1849Application of Jacquard Punched Paper Technology to Typesetting Machinery 1849 – 1853The First Index to Periodical LIterature July 23, 1849Report on Select Committee on Public Libraries November 3, 1849"Notes and Queries", An Early Newsgroup, Begins Publication 1850 – November 13, 1851The Brett Brothers Lay the First Telegraph Cable between England and France 1850 – 1858Paul Julius Reuter Founds the Reuters News Service Circa 1850Flong as an "Immutable Form of Information Capture" 1850 – 1937Incunabula of the Zulu Language, and a Zulu Beadwork Love Letter 1850 – 1858Robert Mallet Founds the Science of Seismology August 14, 1850The Public Libraries Act of 1850 1851Alfred Smee Speculates About a Logic Machine that Might Occupy a Space Larger than London 1851Augustus De Morgan Proposes Quantitative Study of Vocabulary in Literary Investigation 1851 – 1860Henry David Thoreau's "In Wildness is the Preservation of the World." 1851 – 1852James Glaisher Proposes Using Microphotography for Document Preservation 1851Amir Kabir Founds the First Modern Institution of Learning in Iran September 18, 1851 – 1857Henry Jarvis Raymond & George Jones Found "The New York Times" December 24, 1851Fire Destroys Two-Thirds of the Library of Congress 1852Charles Jewett Proposes a National Union Catalogue 1852 – 1862Paul Gustave Froment Invents the Micropantograph April 29, 1852Roget's Thesaurus is First Published 50 Years After its Composition 1854 – July 27, 1866Cyrus Field and the Three Attempts to Lay the Atlantic Cable 1854 – July 1857Paul Pretsch's "Photographic Art Treasures," the First Book of Printed Reproductions of Photographs 1854Allen's Victoria Regia: The First Large Scale Chromolithographed Book Produced in the U.S. 1854Mirza Mohammad-Vali Hakimbashi Introduces Western Anatomical Illustration into Persian Culture 1855
The Hughes telegraph, the first telegraph printing text on a paper tape; this one was manufactureed by Siemens and Halske, Germany (Warsaw Muzeum Techniki).
David Edward Hughes Invents a Mechanism for Printing Telegraph Messages
1855Matthew Maury Writes the First Widely Read 19th Century Textbook of Oceanography and Atmospherics 1855
Detail of lithograph from Addison's On the Constitutional and Local Effects of Disease of the Suprarenal Capsules. Please click on link to view and resize larger image.  
Thomas Addison Describes "Addison's Disease"
1855Isaiah Deck Describes the Production of Mummy Paper in Nineteenth Century America December 22, 1855The "Illustrated London News" Christmas Supplement, the First Newspaper Printed in Color 1856Geroge Parker Bidder, One of the Most Remarkable Human Computers 1856Andrea Crestadoro Describes Keyword in Context Indexing 1856 – 1867
Title page of Hermann von Helmholtz's Handbuch der physiologischen Optik. Please click on link to view and resize entire page.
Hermann von Helmholtz Issues "Physiological Optics", Over 11 Years
December 2, 1856Historians Stanhope, Macaulay & Carlyle Found the National Portrait Gallery 1857 – 1864William Farr Publishes the First Instances of a Printing Calculator Used to Do Original Work 1857Hugh Miller Issues the First Book to Include a Photograph of its Author 1857The First Dust Jackets in the Flap-Style on Books Printed in English 1857Lorin Blodget Founds of American Climatology and Meteorology 1857Richard Chenevix Trench Describes the Need for What Would Become the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) 1857Jules Antoine Lissajous Describes Lissajous Figures May 5 – October 17, 1857"The Art Treasures of Great Britain," Perhaps the Largest Art Exhibition ever Held 1858Queen Victoria Charters the First Distance Learning Program 1858 – January 1859
Detail from Nightingale's
Florence Nightingale's Rose Diagram
1858Perhaps the Earliest Australian Type Specimen and Trade Catalogue January 1858 – 1874Brixham Cave Supplies Proof of Human Antiquity August 20, 1858
Charles Darwin
Darwin & Wallace Issue the First Printed Exposition of the Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection
1859 – 1861"Mrs. Beeton's Book of Household Management": One of the Major Publishing Successes of the 19th Century 1859Edward Edwards Issues the First Comprehensive Account of the Development of Libraries 1859The First Book on Baseball is Issue Anonymously 1859François Willème Invents Photosculpture: Early 3D Imaging February 4, 1859Constantin von Tischendorf Discovers and Acquires the Codex Sinaiticus: Controversial and Disputed April 7, 1859Having Refused to Support Babbage, the British Government Pays for a Difference Engine Produced in Sweden August 27, 1859The First Successful Oil Well is Drilled in Titusville, Pennsylvania November 24, 1859
The title page of On the Origin of Species by Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin's "On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection"
1860100,000 Tons of Paper, Only 4% Made by Hand 1860de Martinville Produces the Earliest Sound Recordings, without Playback 1860Henry Chadwick Issues the First Compilation of Baseball Statistics 1860 – 1861The Autograph Manuscript of Mill's "Considerations on Representative Government" April 3, 1860 – October 26, 1861The Pony Express: Operational for Just a Little More than One Year June 16, 1860The Origins of Network Neutrality Have Their Basis in Telegraph Networks October 13, 1860"Boston as the Eagle and Wild Goose See It": the First Clear Photographic Aerial View of a City 1861 – 1864Edouard Lartet & Henry Christy Issue Probably the Earliest Paper on Paleolithic Mobiliary Art 1861 – 1869Perhaps the First Book on Solar Energy and its Industrial Applications 1861James Clerk Maxwell Produces the First Color Photograph October 24, 1861New York and San Francisco are Connected by Telegraph October 27, 1861Johann Philipp Reis, the True Inventor of the Telephone? 1862William A. Hammond Founds the National Museum of Health and Medicine 1862Ludwig Ritter von Köchel Issues the Köchel-Verzeichnis of Mozart's Works 1862Abraham Lincoln's Surveillance of Telecommunications During the American Civil War 1862Henry Walter Bates Describes "Batesian Mimicry" 1862 – 1863Bibliographer Henry Bradshaw Rebuts Constantine Simonides' Claim that Simonides had Forged the Codex Sinaiticus July 1, 1862
Text of first page of HR 312 also known as the Revenue Act of 1862.
Origins of the Internal Revenue Service
1863The Largest Dictionary in Book Form January 1863Charles Lyell Issues "The Geological Evidences of the Antiquity of Man" January 1, 1863 – 1864Lincoln Issues the Emancipation Proclamation January 10, 1863The First Subway, The Metropolitan Railway, Opens in London January 11, 18633-D Solar Imaging Reveals Details of Sunken Civil-War Era Steampship February 1863Thomas Huxley Issues "Man's Place in Nature" June 13, 1863Samuel Butler's "Darwin among the Machines" 1864Babbage's "Passages from the Life of a Philosopher" 1864Marsh's "Man and Nature" : Fountainhead of the Conservation Movement 1864Hemoglobin is Named 1865Maxwell's Field Equations of Electromagnetism 1865Frederick Law Olmsted Presents the Philosophical Justification for Public Preservation of Great Natural Scenery 1865The First Dust Jacket Issued by a Publisher in the United States 1865John Lubbock's "Pre-Historic Times" is Published 1865 – 1867 The Role of Women as Typesetters in the French Printing Industry 1866Osman Zeki Bey Becomes the First Printer Authorized to the Print the Qur'an in Constantinople 1866Benjamin Tilghman Invents the Sulfite Pulping Process for Manufacturing Paper from Wood Pulp 1866
Augustinian Abbey of St. Thomas in Brno
Mendel's Discovery of the Mendelian Ratios
1867Edward A. Calahan Invents the Stock Ticker 1867The Surgeon General's Library & Museum Are Moved to the Site of Lincoln's Assassination 1867Imprimerie Alfred Mame's Spectacular Portrayal of Large Scale Book Manufacturing September 14, 1867Marx's "Das Kapital" is Published 1868The Times of London Prints on Continuous Paper, Increasing Production 1868Maxwell's "On Governors" : Exposition on Feedback Mechanisms 1868
Sholes and Glidden typewriter documentation.  The machine, patented on June 23, 1868, resembled
Sholes, Soule, & Glidden Invent the First Device to Allow the Operator to Write Faster than a Person Writing by Hand
1868Alexander Kennedy Issues the First Book on Birds Illustrated with Actual Photographs 1868Joel Munsell Produces a Sale Catalogue of His Collection of Rare Books on Printing and Related Topics 1869Alfred R. Wallace's "The Malay Archipelago" Describes the Wallace Line 1869Mendeleev's Discovery of the Periodic Law and the Periodic Table 1869 – 1871
Felix Hoppe Seyler
Johannes Friedrich Miescher Discovers DNA
1869Francis Galton Issues "Hereditary Genius" November 20, 1869Charles Joseph Minard Issues One of the Best Statistical Graphic Ever Drawn 1870William Stanley Jevons Constructs the First Logic Machine to Solve Complicated Problems Faster than Man 1870British Telegraph is Nationalized 1870 – 1874Émile Baudot Invents the Baudot Code, the First Means of Digital Communication 1870Requiring Universal Education of Children Between the Ages of 5 and 12 in England and Wales April 1870Henry Bradshaw Begins Modern Bibliographical Analysis September 19, 1870 – January 28, 1871The Pigeon Post into Paris: The First Important Application of Microfilm 1871 – 1873Heinrich Schliemann Discovers the Ancient City of Troy 1871Lambert Adolphe Jacques Quetelet Establishes the Mathematical Study of Anthropological Data 1871Darwin Predicts that Human Origins Will be Found in Africa 1872Charles Babbage's Library: the First Catalogue of a Library on Computing and its History 1872Samuel Butler Novel "Erewhon" Describes Artificial Consciousness 1872Darwin Founds Ethology, Studies the Conveyance of Information, and Contributes to Psychology 1872 – June 15, 1878Eadweard Muybridge Produces the First Photographs of Motion July 25 – November 29, 1872Henry Stevens Calls for a Central Bibliographical Bureau Which Would Also Store Images August 1872Montgomery Ward Issues the First General Merchandise Mail Order Catalogue 1873Willoughby Smith Discovers the Photoconductivity of Selenium 1873Forest and Stream Magazine Promotes Conservation 1873 – 1874
Latham Sholes's 1878 QWERTY keyboard layout
The Sholes & Glidden Type Writer, with the First QWERTY Keyboard
1873 – 1886Bigmore & Wyman Issue the First Comprehensive Bibliography of the History of Printing 1873 – 1874Robert Clark Kedzie Issues "Poisonous Papers," and a Poisonous Book Published in an Edition of 100 Copies 1873 – 1950Anthony Comstock Founds the New York Society for the Suppression of Vice and Lobbies for Passage of the "Comstock Law" March 4, 1873 – September 23, 1889The "Daily Graphic" of New York, Probably the First Illustrated Daily Newspaper, Begins Publication 1874
Circular note, launched in 1874 by Thomas Cook. 
No higher resolution image available at this time.
"Circular Notes", a Precursor of Traveler's Cheques, are Introduced
1874 – 1878Josiah Willard Gibbs Issues The Principia of Thermodynamics 1874Francis Amasa Walker Issues The First National Thematic Atlas 1874James Clerk Maxwell's Three-Dimensional Thermodynamic Surface in Clay Circa 1875
Detail of image from Baldwin's Calculating Machine. See larger image and resize image for complete picture.
Baldwin & Odhner Invent Calculators Using a True Variable-Toothed Gear
1875Printing Two Sides of Paper Simultaneously 1875The First Logarithmic Table Produced by a Calculating Machine 1875
Thomas Edison's electric pen.
Edison Invents the "Electric Pen": Forerunner of the Mimeograph
1875Shepardizing: A Legal Citation System June 30, 1875The "New York Tribune" Publishes the First Significant Series of Illustrations in a Daily Newspaper 1876 – 1885Librarian Melvil Dewey Invents Dewey Decimal Classification 1876The Earliest Exhibition Exclusively of Scientific Instruments 1876 – 1961The First Truly Comprehensive Subject Index of the Published Literature of Any Science 1876 – December 2012The First Comprehensive Global Study of Zoogeography, Including the first Global Biodiversity Map 1876The Last Library Cataloguing Code Written by One Person 1876Among the Most Unusual of Library Organizations: The Light House Traveling Library 1876 – 1877"Street Life in London": Pioneering Social Documentary Photography as a Form of Photojournalism February – May 10, 1876Bell Invents and Patents the Telephone October 6, 1876ALA is Founded 1877The First Regular Telephone Line & The First Telephone Switchboard 1877300 Clerks Reviewing 2,500,000 Insurance Policies with 24 Calculators 1877Pioneering Study of Community Ecology 1877The First Supersonic Image; The Mach Angle and Mach Number 1877Dewey Urges Standardization of Library Catalogue Cards 1877The First American Bibliography on the History of Printing March 4, 1877Emile Berliner Invents the Microphone June 30 – September 1, 1877The Caxton Quadricentennial Celebration: Probably the Largest Exhibition on the History of Printing Ever Held; Collecting its Publications July 9, 1877 – March 1880Formation of the Bell Telephone Company, then the American Bell Telephone Company August 12, 1877Edison Invents the Phonograph 1878David Hughes Invents the Loose-Contact Carbon Microphone 1878
Remington Standard 2 typewriter.
Allowing the Typing of Both Upper and Lower Case Letters
1878Abdank-Abakanowicz Invents the Integraph 1878Invention of Photogravure 1878Marey Pioneers Recording Scientific Results Graphically 1878Morgand & Fatout Issue Perhaps the Earliest Antiquarian Bookseller's Catalogue Illustrated with Plates Printed in Color 1878 – 1896Foundation of International Parcel Post Service 1878"Mullerian Mimicry" is Described 1878 – 1882Discovery of Mitosis January 1878The First Regular Telephone Exchange is Established in New Haven, Connecticut June 1878Edison Describes Future Uses for his Phonograph June 22, 1878 – October 2012Listening to the Earliest Surviving Recording of a Musical Performance November 1878The First Telephone Directory is Published in New Haven, Connecticut 1879The Incandescent Light Bulb is Invented 1879The First Extensively Used Scientific Method of Criminal Identification 1879Index Medicus Begins 1879Foundation of Modern Mathematical Logic 1880George Carey Invents One of the Earliest Systems of Television Transmission 1880Adriano de Paiva Issues the First Separate Publication on Television 1880Could Life From Other Planets Have Been Carried to Earth by Meteorites? 1880Foundation of Brain Imaging April 1, 1880The First Wireless Telephone Communication October 8, 1880Fingerprints as a System of Identification 1881 – 1905The First Complete Catalogue of the British Museum Library Following Panizzi's Rules 1882 – 1883
Ritty and Birch's
The Cash Register is Patented
1882 – 1924Hollerith's Electromechanical Punched Card Tabulating Machine, Ancestor of IBM 1882 – 18843,500,000 Quotations on Individual Slips of Paper November 5, 1882Richard Owen Calls Darwin the "Copernicus of Biology" 1883 – July 15, 1885Invention of the Linotype 1883Imagining a Library 100 Years in the Future 1883The First Carnegie Library 1883
Wilhelm Roux
Suggesting that the Nucleus Contains the Material Basis of Heredity
1884Flatland: A Romance of Many Dimensions 1884
Advertisement from 1889 for the Edison-Dick Mimeograph.
The Mimeograph: The First Widely Used Duplicating Machine
1884NCR is Founded 1884The American Historical Association 1884The First Scientific Study of the Effects of Cocaine 1884"La Marquise", The World's Oldest Running Automobile, is Sold 1884Hypothesizing that the Cell Nucleus Contains the Material Basis of Heredity 1884 – 1900"Paleographie des classiques latins" and its Digital, Updated Version January 23, 1884Foundation of The Grolier Club February 1, 1884 – April 19, 1928The O E D Finally Begins Publication Circa February 12, 1884Development of an Efficiently Functioning Fountain Pen 1885Daimler Invents the Internal Combustion Engine 1885The First Automobile 1885"Memory: A Contribution to Experimental Psychology" 1885Pioneering Sociological Study of China March 3, 1885 – 1892AT&T is Founded 1886 – 1887A Prayerbook Entirely Woven by the Jacquard Loom 1886Formation of the National Audubon Society 1886Charles Sanders Pierce Recognizes that Logical Operations Could be Carried Out by Electrical Switching Circuits 1886Gaston Tissandier Issues The First Book on Aerial Photography 1886 – 1901Isolation of Nucleic Acid & Naming its Five Constituent Organic Compounds 1886The First Subject Index to the Library of the British Museum July 3, 1886The "New York Daily Tribune" Publishes the First Application of the Linotype September 5, 1886"Le Journal Illustré" Publishes the First Photo-Interview September 9, 1886The Berne Convention 1887The Flat Disc Gramophone 1887Hertz Proves the Existence of Electromagnetic Waves 1887
Early comptometer.
Dorr E. Felt Invents the Comptometer
1887 – 1889Appleton Publishes Imaginary Historical Biographies 1887First Use of the Term "Credit Card" 1887Foundation of Aquatic Ecosystem Science 1887"The Tribune Book of Open-Air Sports", the First Book Typeset by Linotype 1887Establishment of the First Library School, the "School of Library Economy" 1887 – 1901Thomas C. Mendenhall Issues One of the Earliest Attempts at Stylometry June 7, 1887 – 1899Tolbert Lanston Invents the Monotype Machine 1888 – 1894The First Motion Picture Shot in the United States 1888 – 1988Gregg Shorthand is Introduced 1888Historical Graphic Interpretation of Man's Quest for Knowledge of the Universe 1888
Theodor Boveri
Decisive Proof of Chromosomal Individuality
July 31, 1888The Telautograph October 14, 1888"Roundhay Garden Scene": The Earliest Surviving Film 1889 – 1955One of the Most Dramatic Problems in the Preservation of Media 1889The Most Complete Work on Babbage's Computers 188977 Windmill Factories Employ 1,100 Workers in the U.S. 1889The First Textbook of Mechanical Flight 1889 – 1909
Hugo de Vries
Postulating that Inheritance of Specific Traits is Controlled by Particles Called Pangenes
1890The First Electric Subway System 1890"How the Other Half Lives": Pioneering Photojournalistic Muckraking 1891Publication of the Tables of de Prony 1891Nomograms: A Graphical Method of Calculation 1891 – 1905Government Surveillance of Refugee Reading Habits at the British Museum, 1891-1905 December 1891The Invention of "Basket Ball" (Basketball) 1892The Burroughs Dependable Key-Driven Printing Adding Machine 1892Electromagnetic Waves: the Basis for Radio 1892Finger Prints as a Means of Identification 1892Stepanov System of Dance Notation 1892 – 1900The Earliest Miniature Printed Editions of the Qur'an 1892
August Weismann
The Weissmann Barrier
May 28, 1892The Sierra Club is Founded October 28, 1892The First Animated Films are Shown 1893
Millionaire mechanical calculator.
The Millionaire Calculator
1893 – 1894The First Production Automobiles September 1893The First International Exhibition of Mathematical Devices September 21, 1893 – 1895The First Successful Gas-Engine Automobile Built in the United States 1894d'Ocagne Publishes the First Systematic Classification of Calculating Machines Circa 1894 – March 19, 1895The First Moving Picture: "Sortie de l'usine Lumière de Lyon" 1894The Press on which William Morris Printed the Kelmscott Chaucer is Sold, Again 1894The First Organized and Published Collection of Aviation Research 1894The Palmer Method 1894 – 1895The First Known Motion Picture with Live-Recorded Sound: Invention of the Kinetophone 1894
William Bateson
Discontinuous Variation as a Source of Evolutionary Change
1894The First Illustrated Song: Precursor of the Music Video 1894"The Enzyme and Substrate Must Fit Each Other Like a Lock and a Key" January 9, 1894"Fred Ott's Sneeze": The First Silent Movie Copyrighted in the U. S. 1895Invention of Radio 1895An Analog Search Engine to Organize All the World's Knowledge 1895The First Mainline Railway is Electrified 1895About 240,000 Telephones are in Use in the U.S.A. 1895The Origin of Psychoanalysis February 13, 1895The Invention of Cinematography March 22, 1895The First Private Screening of a Motion Picture September 28, 1895The First Public Screening of a Film at the World's First and Oldest Cinema November 8, 1895Rontgen Discovers X-Rays December 28, 1895The First Public Commerical Screening of Films 1896Northcliff Founds the Daily Mail; Circulation Soon Reaches 1,000,000 1896 – 1902The Largest and Most Diverse Collection of Medieval Manuscripts in the World 1896The First to Quantify the Impact of Carbon Dioxide on the Greenhouse Effect 1896The Monotype Converts to Hot-Metal Casting May 26, 1896Foundation of the Dow Jones Industrial Average 1897The First Cathode Ray Tube 1897The Library of Congress Classification 1897
Francis Galton
Galton's "Law of Ancestral Heredity"
May 1897Mallarmé: Experimentation with the Relationship Between the Word and the Printed Page August 21, 1897 – 1901The First Automobile Assembly Line 1898The Questionable Quality of Paper 1898The Garden City Movement 1898Standardization of Archival Practice 1898Prediction of the Polypeptide Nature of the Protein Molecule 1898The Library of Congress Establishes Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) January 14, 1898Lewis Carroll Wrote or Received 98,000 Letters February 1898The Cumulative Book Index November 4, 1899The Last Great Original Work in Science to be Published First as a Monograph Rather than in a Scientific Journal December 1899Perhaps the Earliest Example of Stop-Motion Animation 1900David Hilbert's "Mathematische Probleme" 1900652,000 Tons of Paper Produced in the U.K. 1900The Automatic Punched Card Feed 1900Most of the Civilized World is Connected by Telegraph 1900The American Booksellers Association is Founded 1900The Oldest Surviving Magnetic Audio Recording 1900Foundation of Quantum Theory 1900
Hugo de Vries
Rediscovery and Confirmation of Mendel's Laws Simultaneously by Three Scientists
1900 – 1902
William Bateson
Coining the Term "Genetics"
December 23, 1900The First Transmission of Speech over Radio Waves 1901The Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature Circa 1901 – 1907Early Facsimile Transmission 1901The Earliest Fictional Account of a Universal Library, Foreshadowing the Virtual Library on the Internet 1901LC Cards 1901 – October 24, 2012Revealing a Hidden Image in a 1901 Painting by Picasso in a 2012 Newspaper Article 1901 – 1903
A painting of Hugo de Vries in his retirement, by Thérèse Schwartze
Mutation Theory is Expounded
1901"Berliner Illustrirte Zeitung", the First Photographically Illustrated News Magazine 1901L. Frank Baum's "The Master Key" Imagines a Kind of Augmented Reality September 18, 1901 – May 2, 1906Invention of the Motorized Airplane December 12, 1901The First Transatlantic Radio Transmission? 1902
Theodor Boveri
Proof that Different Chromosomes Perform Different Functions in Development
1902 – 1908The First Proof of Mendelian Heredity in Humans 1903 – 1904Ira Rubel Invents the First Offset Press 1903Genetic Variability, Phenotype and Genotype 1903Theorizing that Chromosomes Carry the Hereditary Material 1903DNA is Distinguished from RNA May 1903 – 1914The Beginnings of Modern Spaceflight Theory 1904Probably the First History of Ink, by a Celebrated Questioned Documents Examiner November 16, 1904 – September 21, 1905The Beginning of Electronics 1905Problems with Leather Used in Bookbinding 1905Einstein's Annus Mirabilis 1905Study of Museums and Research Libraries 1906Lee de Forest Invents the Triode 1906A New Standard for Descriptive Bibliography in the History of Science 1906"The Story of the Kelly Gang": The First Full-Length Feature Film December 24, 1906The First Audio Radio Broadcast of Entertainment and Music 1907The Photomicrographic Book 1907The First Prediction of the Possibility of Man-Made Global Warming 1907 – 1930Curtis's The North American Indian July 17, 1907Forerunner of United Press International 1908 – 1914A New Version of Babbage's Analytical Engine, Lost 1908The First Library of Rare Science Books Formed by an American 1908 – December 1, 1913Henry Ford Sponsors Improvements in the Automotive Assembly Line 1908The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium 1908Pathé Invents the Newsreel June 18, 1908Campbell-Swinton Describes the Earliest Concept for Electronic or CRT Television 1909The Wheeler Gift Catalogue of the History of Electricity and Telegraphy 1909The First Large-Scale Investigation of Species Differences at the Molecular Level 1909 – 1911The Theory of Polygenic Inheritance January – February 20, 1909"The Founding and Manifesto of Futurism" November 1909An Early Sci-Fi View of the Internet and Virtual Reality 1910 – 1913Russell & Whitehead's "Principia Mathematica" 1910George Owen Squier Invents Telephone Carrier Multiplexing 1910Sex-Linked Inheritance; Demonstration that Genes are Carried on Chromosomes 1911A Mechanical Punched-Card Tabulating System 1911Management of Water Pollution June 11, 1911 – 1913"Die Brucke" and its Goals for a World Information Clearing House September 10, 1911Genetic Recombination is Proposed 1912 – 1915Torres y Quevedo Invents the First Decision-Making Automaton 1912Brunsviga Sells 20,000 Variable-Toothed Gear Calculators in One Year 1912"Ridgway Colors" 1912The Theory of Continental Drift 1912 – 1991Origins of the "Garrison-Morton" Bibliography of the History of Medicine 1912 – 1914Incunable of Poetic and Typographic Experimentation of the 20th Century 1912Discovery of the Diffraction of X-Rays in Crystals 1912The First School of Journalism is Founded at Columbia University November 1912 – February 1913Discovery of the "Bragg Relation" in Crystallography 1913"Our Vanishing Wild Life" 1913 – 1934The First European Work on Theoretical Astronautics 1913 – 1914Moseley's Law in X-Ray Spectra 1913Discovery of Nondisjunction 1913Using Cross-Over Data to Construct the First Genetic Map January 1, 1913The U. S. Post Office Begins Parcel Post Service February 17 – March 15, 1913The Armory Show Introduces "Modern Art" to the United States May 11, 1913Marinetti's Manifesto of his Typographical Revolution July – November 1913The Structure and Dynamics of the Atom July 1913Discovery of X-Ray Crystallography 1914Thomas J. Watson President of CTR 1914Edward Kleinschmidt Invents the Teletype 1914The Audit Bureau of Circulation, the First Circulation Auditing Organization, is Founded 1914Edwin Armstrong Invents the Regenerative Circuit 1914William Brinton Issues "Graphic Methods for Presenting Facts", the First American Book on Information Graphics July 24 – July 27, 1914Summarizing the State of the Computer / Calculator Industry Prior to World War I August 1 – August 3, 1914World War I Begins August 25, 1914Destruction of the University Library at Leuven 1915Lowenheim's Contribution to the Lowenheim-Skolem Theorem 1915Mendelian Laws are Demonstrated by Observable Events Occurring in Cells 1915Discovery of Bacteriophages: Viruses that Infect Bacteria January 25, 1915The First Transcontinental Telephone Call 1916The First National Opinion Poll? 1916Plant Succession 1916General Relativity 1916 – 1924Napoleon's Penis, and Other Napoleon Memorabilia 1916The Standard Work on Hot-Metal Casting and Composition 1916 – 2013Destruction of the Doves Press Type and its Digital Revival in 2013 April 23, 1916The Proclamation of the Irish Republic October 1916 – October 25, 1917The Russian Revolution 1917The Basis for Computed Tomography 1917Invention of SONAR 1917Foundation of Barnes & Noble 1917Coining the Term Bacteriophage 1917The Pulitzer Prize is Established by the Will of Joseph Pulitzer 1918Foundation of Biometrical Genetics June 21, 1918Eccles & Jordan Invent the Flip-Flop Circuit, the Basis for Electronic Memory October 19, 1918Coordinating National Standards Development November 11, 1918The End of World War I 1919Early Versions of the Enigma 1919800,000 Burroughs Calculators Have Been Sold 19196,292 Different Incunabula in North American Libraries 1919 – March 16, 1936The Earliest Practical Treatise on the Development of Rocketry for Space Flight 1919First Use of the Word Gene November 6, 1919The First Experimental Proof of General Relativity 1920Introduction of the Word "Robot" 1920Skolem's Contribution to the Lowenheim-Skolem Theorem August 31, 1920Station 8MK in Detroit Broadcasts the First Radio News Program October 1920Invention of the Theremin November 2, 1920The First Commercial Radio Broadcast 1922
Meteorologist Lewis Fry Richardson, creator of the first dynamic model for weather prediction, proposes the creation of a “forecast factory” that would employ some 64,000 human computers sitting in tiers around the circumference of a giant globe. Each calculator would be responsible for solving differential equations related to the weather in his quadrant of the earth. From a pedestal in the center of the factory, a conductor would orchestrate this symphony of equations by shining a beam of light on areas of the globe where calculation was moving too fast or falling behind.
Imagining Using 64,000 Human Computers to Predict the Weather
1922The Index of Coincidence Method of Code-Breaking 1922Jenkinson Publishes A Manual of Archive Administration 1922 – 1936George Owen Squier Invents Muzak 1922The Largest Paid Circulation Print Magazine in the World October 18 – November 14, 1922The BBC is Founded November 4, 1922Discovery of the Tomb of Tutankhamum 1923Invention of the Iconoscope, the First Electronic Television Camera 1923The Enigma Machine is Introduced 1923The First Suburban Shopping Center Designed for Shoppers Arriving by Automobile 1923Foundation of Public Relations February 4, 1923An Early Vision of Transhumanism, and the First Proposal of a Hydrogen-Based Renewable Energy Economy. June 1923 – 1929From "The Rocket in Interplanetary Space" to "Frau im Mond" 1924IBM is Founded 1924A Logarithmic Law for Communication 1924 – April 1925The First Electrical Sound Recording 1924"Mathematical Theory of Natural and Artificial Selection" 1924 – 1933S. R. Ranganathan Develops Colon Classification (CC), the First Faceted Classification February 1924The Beginning of "Talk Radio" 1925The Creation of Bell Labs 1925A Massive Central Library on Microform for Printing on Demand 1925 – 1927Blue-Print for The Third Reich 1926Sarnoff Creates NBC 1926The Basic Equations for Two-Species Interactions 1926Virginia Woolf's "How Should One Read a Book?" January 26, 1926John Logie Baird Presents the First Demonstration of Electromechanical Television 1927The International Federation of Library Associations is Founded 1927Invention of Magnetic Tape 1927Animal Ecology 1927The Literature and Culture of Suicide 1927Proof that X-Rays Can Induce Mutations 1927Fortunato Depero's "Bolted Catalogue" of Futurist Graphics January 25, 1927Formation of Remington Rand April 7, 1927Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover Participates in the First American Demonstration of Electromechanical Television September 7, 1927Philo Farnsworth Invents the First All-Electronic Television October 1927The First Full-Length Film with Synchronized Dialogue 1928Hilbert Asks, Is Mathematics Complete, is it Consistent, and is it Decidable? 1928IBM Adopts the Eighty-Column Punched Card, Standard for the Next 50 Years 1928 – 1937Key Achievements of Leslie J. Comrie, Including Foundation of the First Independent Scientific Computing Service 1928Hartley's Law 1928Von Neumann Invents the Theory of Games 1928"Lights of New York": The First All-Talking Feature Film 1928Demonstration that Bacteria Can Transfer Genetic Information Through an Unidentified Transforming Factor 1928 – 1975The Dirac Equation January – May 11, 1928The Beginning of "Regular" Electromechanical Television Broadcasting in the United States March 1928The First Television Magazine Begins Publication in London July 3, 1928John Logie Baird Demonstrates the First Mechanical Color Television Transmission September 1928CBS September 11, 1928The First Broadcast of a Play by Television 1929 – 1930John Logie Baird Begins the First Experimental Television Service at the German Post Office 1929The Relationship between Information and Thermodynamics 1929The Expanding Universe 1929The First Flight Simulator 1929A Portion of a 15th Century Medical Library for Sale in 1929 1929 – 1953Henry E. Bliss Develops the Bliss Bibliographic Classification August 1929Bruce Rogers Creates Monotype Centaur 1930 – June 1949The Contributions of Vannevar Bush to Analog Computing, Information Retrieval, and the Concept of Hypertext 1930Jacques Herbrand Proves the Deduction Theorem Circa 1930 – 1945Hundreds of Thousands of Wind Turbines Power Farms in the U.S. 1930 – 1931Bob Brown: Visionary of New Reading Machines and Changes in the Process of Reading 1930R. A. Fisher's "The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection" April 1930 – 1950Statistical Quality Control in Manufacturing is Conceptualized and Introduced by Shewhart and Deming May 16, 1930Foundation of Texas Instruments 1931Godel's Incompleteness Theorems 1931The IBM 601 Multiplying Punch 1931 – June 15, 1938The First Commercially Successful Ballpoint Pen 1931The First "Talking-Books" 1931Wright's Quantitative Theory of the Effects of Natural Selection on Populations 1931"The Inborn Factors in Disease" 1931The First Studies of Proteins by X-Ray Analysis 1931Pauling's Six Rules for the Shared Electron Bond December 29, 1931Emanuel Goldberg Invents the First Successful Electronic Document Retrieval Device 1932Public Television Broadcasting Begins in England 1932Marinetti's Metal Book: "Parole in Liberta . . ." October 3, 1932The Times New Roman Typeface Debuts 1933 – 1936Edwin Armstrong Invents Frequency Modulation (FM Radio) 1933IBM Markets the First Commercially Successful Electric Typewriter 1933 – 1934Wallace J. Eckert and IBM Develop the First Machine to Perform Complex Scientific Calculations Automatically Circa 1933Petr Petrovich Troyanskii of St. Petersburg Invents a Mechanical "Translating Machine" 1933 – 1944Eugen Sänger's "Raketenflugtechnik" Expounds the Theory of What Would Become the X-Planes and the Space Shuttle 1933 – 194542,500 Camps and Ghettos Were in Operation During the Holocaust 1933Niels Bohr Asks if Living Processes Could be Described in Terms of Pure Physics and Chemistry 1933The Henry Graves Supercomplication, the Most Valuable Watch in the World April 3, 1933 – 1934Invention of the Sociogram: Some of the Earliest Graphic Depictions of Social Networks April 6, 1933 – 1945Hitler Seizes Power in Germany and the Nazis Begin Purging Germany of Jews & Jewish Culture, Eventually Burning 100,000,000 Books and Killing About 20 Million People 1934 – 1958Key Contributions of Konrad Zuse to the History of Computer Design and Software 1934 – April 27, 1935The First Practical Tape Recorder 1934Creation of the FCC 1934Picasso Depicts His Lover Reading at a Table 1934The Beginning of Protein Crystallography: Possibly the Beginning of Structural Molecular Biology January 26, 1934Bradford's Law April 24, 1934 – April 1935The Hammond Electric Organ June 19, 1934Foundation of the U.S. National Achives 1935 – 1936The Social Security Program Creates a Giant Data-Processing Challenge Circa 1935 – 1950Charga-Plate Precursor of the Credit Card 1935 – December 30, 2010Kodachrome, the First Color Transparency Film for Cinematography and Still Photography, is Developed 1935Timofeeff-Ressovsky Publishes One of the Key Conceptual Papers in the Early History of Molecular Biology 1935"Pygmalion's Spectacles," Probably the First Comprehensive and Specific Fictional Model for Virtual Reality January 21, 1935Foundation of The Wilderness Society February 12, 1935Robert Watson-Watt Invents Radar July 30, 1935Allen Lane & Penguin Books Invent the Mass-Market Paperback September 1935IBM's German Subsidiary, Deutsche Hollerith Maschinen, Introduces the First Automatic Sequence-Controlled Calculator 1936Alonzo Church Proves Undecidability 1936 – 1939The Voder, the First Electronic Speech Synthesizer: a Simplified Version of the Vocoder 1936Charlie Chaplin's "Modern Times" July 7, 1936The First NBC / RCA Television Broadcast Is Recorded on Film November 20, 1936 – 1938H. G. Wells and the "World Brain" November 30, 1936Alan Turing Publishes "On Computable Numbers," Describing What Came to be Called the "Turing Machine" December 1936Founding of the Society of American Archivists 1937 – 1938Elektro, the Most Famous Robot of the 1930s 1937"Trees to Tribune": Film on the Production of the Chicago Tribune Newspaper 1937 – 1942The Only Known Complete Inventory of Art Labeled "Degenerate" by the Nazis August 10, 1937Shannon's "Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits," "The Most Significant Master's Thesis of the 20th Century" November 1937 – October 1941George Stibitz Builds the First Electromechanical Computers in America November 1937 – 1946Key Aspects of the Development of the Harvard Mark 1 and its Software 1938 – 1949Chester Carlson invents Xerography; It Becomes Successful About 20 Years Later 1938La Réalité virtuelle 1938Otto Bettman Founds The Bettmann Archive: the Beginning of "The Visual Age" 1938Felix Haurowitz Suggests that Hemoglobin is a Molecular Lung 1938Warren Weaver Coins the Term "Molecular Biology" February 4, 1938John Logie Baird Makes the First Mechanical Color Broadcast October 30, 1938Mass Hysteria Induced by Electronic Media 1939Fantasies of an All-Encompassing Archive or "Universal Library" 1939 – 1972DDT is Discovered, and Eventually Banned 1939One of the First "Maps of Science" 1939Pauling's "The Nature of the Chemical Bond" April 1939RCA Introduces of Regularly Scheduled Electronic TV Broadcasting in America Circa September 1939 – 1945Highlights of Alan Turing and Colleagues' Cryptanalysis Work at Bletchley Park September 1, 1939Alfred Wiener Creates the First Holocaust Museum 1940Glamorous Film Actress Hedy Lamarr Invents Spread-Sprectrum 1940NIMATRON: An Early Electromechanical Machine to Play the Game of Nim April 1940Benjamin Lee Whorf Asks "Does Language Influence Thought?" May 6 – May 16, 1940
Detail of cover of catalogue for An Exhibition of Printing at the Fitzwilliam Museum.  Please click to view entire cover of catalogue.
The Fitzwilliam Museum Exhibition of Printing: Precursor to "Printing and the Mind of Man"
May 25, 1940Sealing of the Crypt of Civilization August – December 1940The Design and Principles of John Atanasoff's ABC Machine, and What John Mauchly Knew About It 1941IBM Introduces a Typewriter with Proportional Spacing 1941Borges' Universe as a Library, or Universal Library or Archive 1941 – 1946The First Application of Electric Punched Card Tabulating Equipment in Crystal Structure Analysis 1941 – November 25, 2013The Maltese Falcon Film Prop Sells for $4,085,000 1941 – 1945Fritz Albert Lipmann Discovers the Process by Which Cells Make Available the Energy to Drive Their Manufacturing Processes April 6, 1941The Nazis Destroy the National Library of Serbia June 1941 – October 2, 1955Key Events in the Development of the First General Purpose Electronic Digital Computer, the ENIAC November 1941The "One Gene- One Enzyme" Hypothesis December 7, 1941Japan Attacks Pearl Harbor; U.S. Declares War on Japan 1942Norbert Weiner Formulates Communication Theory as a Statistical Problem 1942 – 1953Book-Form Publication of the Library of Congress Catalogue Begins: 167 Volumes Plus 42 Volumes of Supplement 1942The Birth of Ecosystem Ecology March 1942Asimov's Three Laws of Robotics + the Zeroth Law August 1942"Waldo" : Imagining Remote Manipulators and TeleRobotics 1943IBM's Vacuum Tube Multiplier, the First Complete Machine to Perform Arithmetic Electronically 1943Key Developments in Jay W. Forrester's Project Whirlwind 1943McCulloch & Pitts Publish the First Mathematical Model of a Neural Network 1943 – 1960MTAC: The First Computing Journal 1943Luria & Delbrück Demonstrate that Natural Selection Occurs in Bacteria March 1943 – 1944Schrödinger's "What is Life?" "The Program has to Build the Machinery to Execute Itself" September 1943The Bell Labs Relay Interpolator, Possibly the First Electromechanical Computer to Run Programs in the U.S. 1944Von Neumann & Morgenstern Issue "The Theory of Games and Economic Behavior" 1944Using Microforms to Conserve Library Space 1944Demonstration that DNA is Responsible for Bacterial Transformation January 29, 1944 – October 19, 1973Key Developments Concerning the ENIAC Patent, the Patent on the General Purpose Electronic Digital Computer October 1944Repeated Dispersal and Eventual Burning of the Greatest Library in Poland December 1944The Fastest Digital Calculators in the U.S. 1945The Use of Telegraphy Peaks in the U.S. 1945 – 1949Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems 1945 – 1949The Hinman Collator 1945The Initial Interrogations of the Nazi Rocket Team and the First Publication Outside of Nazi Germany of Rocketry Research at Peenemunde East 1945An Antiquarian Bookseller Predicts an Alternative to the Printed Codex 1945"From Script to Print. An Introduction to Medieval Literature" February – March 1945Bombing of Dresden Destroys Books and Manuscripts April 27, 1945The Collapse of the Third Reich is Followed by VE Day June 30, 1945Von Neumann Privately Circulates the First Theoretical Description of a Stored-Program Computer September 2, 1945World War II Ends September 9, 1945The First Use of "Bug" in the Context of Computing September 30, 1945The First Engineering Report on the EDVAC Circa October 1945 – February 20, 1947Turing's Main Hardware Design After World War II, the Automatic Computing Engine (ACE) October 1945Arthur C. Clarke Predicts Communication by Geosynchronous Satellites 1946 – 1953The First Working Phototypesetting Machine and the First Book it Typeset 1946 – 1956DuMont Television: The First Commercial Television Network 1946 – 1953The Macy Conferences on Cybernetics Occur 1946Avery, McLeod & McCarty Discover that Bacteria Share Genetic Information Through Bacterial Conjugation 1946Humphrey Bogart and Dorothy Malone Appear in Probably the Most Famous Bookstore Scene in Movie History March 1946 – 1947Key Developments in von Neumann's IAS Electronic Computer Project March 15, 1946Eckert & Mauchly Found Electronic Control Co., the World's First Electronic Computer Company July 1946The First Speculation that Amino Acids are Determined by Nucleic Acids July 8 – 1946The Moore School Lectures Take Place November 12, 1946A Soroban Beats an Electric Calculator 1947Couffignal Decides against Building a Stored-Program Computer in France 1947Booth & Britten Write the Earliest Program Leading toward Machine Translation 1947The First Phototypesetter 1947Kurt Herzstark Invents the Curta, the Most Advanced Small Mechanical Calculator 1947 – 1956Discovery of the "Dead Sea Scrolls" 1947The Society of Archivists (England) is Founded 1947The International League of Antiquarian Booksellers (ILAB) is Founded 1947Dennis Gabor Invents Holography 1947Documentary Film on Letterpress Book Production 1947"The Cathodre Ray Tube Amusement Device," Probably the Oldest Interactive Electronic Game 1947One of the First Studies of Pattern Recognition 1947Vocational Film about the Printing Industry January 7 – January 10, 1947The First Large Conference on Electronic Computers is Held in Cambridge, Massachusetts February 21, 1947Edwin Land Demonstrates the Polaroid Land Camera Model 95, the First "Instant" Film Camera March 4 – May 9, 1947Warren Weaver Suggests Applying Cryptanalysis Techniques to Translation April 1947 – August 16, 1948Goldstine & von Neumann Write the First Theoretical Discussion of Programming a Stored-Program Computer April 1947The First Published Photographs of the Earth Taken From Space April 24, 1947 – November 4, 1952Key Events in the Development of the UNIVAC, the First Electronic Computer Widely Sold in the United States September 15, 1947The EACM, Predecessor of the ACM, Holds its First Meeting October 1947 – September 1950Innovative Aspects of the BINAC, the First Electronic Computer Ever Sold December 1947Origins of NLM's Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) December 23, 1947Bardeen, Brattain & Shockley Invent the Point-Contact Transistor 1948First Assemblage of Digital Electronics Replaceable as a Unit 1948Norbert Wiener Issues "Cybernetics", the First Widely Distributed Book on Electronic Computing 1948Andrew D. Booth Invents the First Magnetic Drum Memory 1948 – 1949The First Electronic Autonomous Robots: the Origin of Social Robotics 1948Columbia Records Introduces the First Long Playing Record (LP) 1948The Final Edition of the Index Librorum Prohibitorum is Published 1948The "Survivor's Talmud" is Published by the U.S. Army 1948Sven Furberg First Proposes a Helical Structure for DNA January 1948IBM's SSEC, the First Computer that Can Modify a Stored Program June 1948Cable Television is Introduced, First in the Mountains of Pennsylvania June 1948Milton Berle, "Mr. Television," Causes the Sale of TV Sets to Double June 21, 1948The Williams Tube and the "Manchester Baby," the First Operational Stored-Program Computer Runs its First Program July – October 1948Shannon's "A Mathematical Theory of Communication" July 1948 – 1950Alan Turing's Contributions to Artificial Intelligence September 20, 1948Comparing the Functions of Genes to Self-Reproducing Automata December 10, 1948The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is Adopted by the United Nations 1949The Nyquist-Shannon Sampling Theorem 1949Edmund Berkeley's "Giant Brains," the First Popular Book on Electronic Computers 1949 – 1951Foundation of MIT's Lincoln Laboratory and SAGE 1949The Antiquarian Booksellers Association of American (ABAA) is Founded 1949Orwell's "Nineteen Eighty-Four" is Published 1949" A Sand County Almanac," Classic of the Environmental Movement 1949 – 1951Roberto Busa & IBM Adapt Punched Card Tabulating to Sort Words in a Literary Text: The Origins of Humanities Computing 1949Discovery of the Sex Chromatin: Beginning of Cytogenetics 1949Donald Hebb Formulates the "Hebb Synapse" in Neuropsychological Theory April 1949 – January 1953One of the Earliest Attempts at Automating Information Retrieval May 6, 1949The EDSAC, the First Easily Used Fully Functional Stored-Program Computer, Runs its First Program June 1949 – 1952"The Key to the Whole Double Helix Story" Before Watson & Crick June 9, 1949A Neurosurgeon Discusses the Differences between Computers and the Human Brain July 15, 1949The Origin of Statistical Machine Translation November 1949The First Stored-Program Computer in Australia November 1949The Beginning of the Molecular Approach to Disease December 1949Proof that a Program Could Reproduce Itself December 7, 1949Enciclopedia Mecanica, Forerunner of the Electronic Book 1950Jule Charney, Agnar Fjörtoff & John von Neumann Report the First Weather Forecast by Electronic Computer 1950"High-Speed Computing Devices," the First Textbook on How to Build an Electronic Computer 1950 – 1951Wilkes,Wheeler & Gill: the First Treatise on Software for an Operational Stored-Program Computer 1950Compiling a Bibliography by Electric Punched Card Tabulating 1950The Hamming Codes 195011,638 New Books Are Published in the U.K. 1950After 1954 More News Was Distributed Electronically than on Paper 1950 – 1954The IBM NORC, the First Supercomputer 1950The Bic Pen 1950Archival Records Include "Machine-Readable Materials" 1950Coining the Expression, Information Retrieval 1950Schmieder's Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis 1950 – 1953The Earliest Pioneer in Electronic Art 1950"Chargaff's Rules" 1950"Newspaper Story": a Film About Newspaper Production January 23, 1950"Can Man Build a Superman?" February 1950
Early Diners' Club card.
"Diners Club", the First Credit Card
February 6, 1950Eckert-Mauchly is Sold to Remington Rand March 1950Shannon Issues the First Technical Paper on Computer Chess May – November 1950Simon, the First Personal Computer November 6, 1950 – 1951MESM, the First Russian Stored-Program Computer 1951 – January 7, 1954The First Public Demonstration of Machine Translation Occurs 1951IBM's First Electronic Computer, the 701, is Designed 1951The First OCR System: "GISMO" 1951The Coordinate and Uniterm Indexing Systems 1951 – 1968Bishop Fulton J. Sheen, Pioneer Televangelist 1951"The First of the True Robots" 1951Miller's "Language and Communication" 1951Information Retrieval vs. Information Warehousing 1951The "DOKEN" (Documentary Engine): a Hypothetical Machine to Search the World's Literature January 8 – January 13, 1951The Paris symposium, "Les Machines á calculer et la pensée humaine," Occurs February 1951The First Ferranti Mark I is Delivered February – October 1951One of the Earliest Computer Games February 16, 1951The Origins of NORAD February 28, 1951Linus Pauling Reports the First Discovery of a Helical Structure for a Protein March 3 – March 5, 1951The First Rock and Roll Recording, Named After First American Muscle Car? May 5, 1951NIMROD: The First Special Purpose Digital Computer Designed to Play a Game June 25, 1951The First Commercial Color Television Broadcast in the United States July 9 – July 12, 1951Maurice Wilkes Introduces Microprogamming July 9 – July 12, 1951Bertram V. Bowden, the First Computer Salesman in England July 9 – July 12, 1951The First Application of an Electronic Computer to Molecular or Structural Biology August 7 – August 9, 1951The First Demonstration of Computer Music August 17, 1951The First Telephone Call Transmitted by Microwave September 4, 1951President Truman Makes the First Transcontinental Television Broadcast Circa November 1951The Second Oldest Known Recordings of Computer Music November 17, 1951First Stored-Program Computer to Run Business Programs on a Routine Basis November 18, 1951Edward R. Murrow Demonstrates the First Live Coast-to-Coast Simultaneous TV Transmission 1952Once Finally Operational, the EDVAC is Obsolete 1952Vaccuum Tubes Especially Designed for Digital Circuits 1952The First Electronic Computer Produced in France: Not a Stored-Program Computer 1952The First Graphical Computer Game 1952"The Education of a Computer" 1952National Educational Television is Founded 1952 – 1953The First Trackball 1952Probably the Best "Book Store" Film Noir 1952The First Compiled Programming Language 1952The First Programmed Chess Game, Played Using a Human Computer 1952The Hershey-Chase "Waring Blender Experiment" January 1952Possibly the First Artificial Self-Learning Machine February 1952A First Step by Crick & Watson on the Road to the Discovery of the Double Helix April 30 – May 2, 1952First West Coast Computer Meeting May 2 – May 6, 1952Rosalind Franklin's Photo #51 of Crystalline DNA June 10, 1952The IAS Machine is Fully Operational June 24 – June 27, 1952Applying Computer Methods to Library Cataloguing and Research June 27, 1952"A Sound of Thunder": Famous Science Fiction Story; Dubious Film September 1952The First Electronic Computer in Germany September 8 – September 10, 1952The First Electronic Computer in Canada October 1952The First Journal on Electronic Computing November 4, 1952The National Security Agency is Founded December 1952IBM Produces an "Electronic Data Processing Machine" 1953 – 1968The First Widely Read English Book on Electronic Computing 1953Invention of the MASER 1953 – 1954The Idea of a Genetic Code 1953 – November 2011Ray Bradbury's Early Dystopian View of Books: "Fahrenheit 451" 1953The Beginning of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) 1953 – 1957Probably the First Computer-Controlled Aesthetic System 1953The IBM 650: The First Mass-Produced Computer February 1953To What Extent Can Human Mental Processes be Duplicated by Switching Circuits? March 9, 1953"Once the government can demand of a publisher the names of the purchasers of his publications, the free press as we know it disappears." March 27, 1953IBM Installs its First Stored Program Electronic Computer, the 701, but They Don't Call it a Computer April 25, 1953Discovery of The Double Helix May 30, 1953Proposal of a Method of DNA's Method of Replication June 1953The First Report on the Application of Electronic Computers to Business September 1953IBM 702 October 29, 1953The Beginning of Medical Ultrasonography November 1953The First Transistor Computer 1954The Deuce Computer (After the Pilot ACE, of Course) 1954Early Library Information Retrieval System 1954Coining the Phrase "Social Network" 1954First Computer to Incorporate Indexing & Floating Point Arithmetic 1954 – 1963The First Light Pen 1954 – 1960Probably the First Widely-Accepted Controlled Vocabulary 1954Publication of Chartae Latinae Antiquiores Begins 1954 – 1961The First Industrial Robot January 1954Journal of the ACM January 1, 1954The First National Color Television Broadcast in the United Sates January 22, 1954The FCC Approves the RCA System of Color Television Broadcasting in the United States March 24, 1954RCA Begins Manufacturing Color Televisions May 10, 1954Texas Instruments Manufactures the First Silicon Transistor May 13 – May 14, 1954Grace Hopper Organizes the First Symposium on Software June 8, 1954Alan Turing's Ambiguous Suicide October 1954The First Use of a Computer to Write Literary Texts November 1954The First Commercial Transistor Radio: The First Widely Sold Tranistorized Product December 1954The First Routine Real-Time Numerical Weather Forecasting December 12 – December 14, 1954One of the Earliest Surviving British Television Dramas 1955Magnetic Core Storage Units 1955The First Amino Acid Sequence of a Protein 1955The First Stored-Program Computer Produced for Sale in France 1955Machine Methods for Information Searching 1955 – September 25, 1956The First Transatlantic Telephone Cable is Operational 1955 – July 1956The First Artificial Intelligence Program 1955The Courier Monospaced Typeface Debuts 1955 – 1962The Sensorama: One of the First Functioning Efforts in Virtual Reality 1955The First Independent Software Company 1955Pioneer Program in Pattern Recognition 1955The First Book on Machine Translation 1955SHARE, The First Computer Users' Group, is Founded March 1955 – December 1956"The Design of Machines to Simulate the Behavior of the Human Brain" April 1955 – December 1957The First Solid State Computer April 15, 1955 – 1956"The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two. . . " July 15, 1955The Foundation of Citation Analysis August 31, 1955Coining the Term, Artificial Intelligence September 1955The Beginning of Computerization of Banking October 1955The First Full-Scale Programmable Japanese Computer November 1955One of the First Fictional Depictions of Autonomous Machine Self-Replication 1956 – January 1958The Origins of The Term "Software" Within the Context of Computing 1956The First Video Tape Recorder 1956Intelligence Amplification by Machines 1956 – 1964Changes in Tissue Density Can be Computed 1956Proving the Feasibility of Weather Prediction by Numerical Process 1956Standing up to Censorship and McCarthyism During the "Second Red Scare" 1956"Nineteen Eighty-Four" Filmed Circa 1956The First Sample-Playback Keyboard 1956Semantic Networks for Machine Translation 1956The First Step Toward Automation of Logic Minimalization 1956Television: A Retrospective in 1956 from the RCA / NBC Viewpoint March 1956The First Japanese Stored-Program Computer June 26 – June 29, 1956First International Congress on Cybernetics July 1956The First Demonstration of Magnetic Ink Character Reading July 1956Werner Buchholz Coins the Term "Byte" September 1956Chomsky's Hierarchy of Syntactic Forms September 4 – September 13, 1956The First Commercial Computer Designed to Use a Moving Head Hard Drive for Secondary Storage September 14, 1956The First Computer with a Hard Drive: $10,000 per Megabyte October 17 – October 18, 1956First Computer Conference in Italy November 1956First Japanese Conference on Electronic Computers 1957IBM Phases Out Vacuum Tubes 1957Control Unit Based on Microprogramming 1957SAGE: Physically the Largest Computers Ever Built 1957Mechanized Encoding of Library Information 1957So-Called Second Generation of Computers 1957The First English-Language Data-Processing Compiler 1957FORTRAN: The First Widely Used First High-Level Programming Language 1957The First Significant Computer Music Composition 1957Beginning of Doppler Ultrasound 1957The Movie "Desk Set", Satirizing the Role of Automation in Eliminating Jobs, and Librarians 1957The First Paper on Machine Learning 1957Invention of the Image Scanner; Creation of the First Digital Image 1957The Helvetica Typeface Debuts Under a Different Name 1957Chomsky's Syntactic Structures 1957There are Forty Computers on American University Campuses 1957J. W. Ellison Issues the First Computerized Concordance of the Bible 1957The First Computer Widely Used Program for Sound Generation February 8, 1957The Premature Death of John von Neumann September 1957Crick's "On Protein Synthesis" October 4, 1957 – 1960The First Operational Satellite Navigation System October 4, 1957Sputnik is Launched December 1, 1957 – January 1959Invention of the "Planar" Manufacturing Process 1958 – 1960John Kendrew Reports the First Solution of the Three-Dimensional Molecular Structure of a Protein 1958Von Neumann's "The Computer and the Brain" 1958Seymour Cray Builds the First Transistorized Supercomputer 1958The First Video Game: "Tennis for Two" 1958The IBM 1401, a Relatively Inexpensive Computer 1958Hans Peter Lund of IBM Develops an Automatic Document Indexing Program 1958An Improved Modem 1958Semi Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) Circa 1958Longevity of Paper is a Function of its Acidity or Alkalinity 1958The First Obstetrical or Gynecological Sonograms 1958
Title sequence from Vertigo; titles designed by Saul Bass; spirographic images contributed by John Whitney.
Animated Title Sequence by Electromechanical Analog Computer
1958A Model for Learning and Adaptation to a Complex Environment 1958First Proof of the Semiconservative Replication of DNA January 31, 1958The U.S. Launches its First Artificial Satellite, Explorer-1 February 7, 1958ARPA is Founded July 1958Kilby Conceives of the Integrated Circuit July 19, 1958The Burroughs Atlas Guidance Computer July 29 – October 1, 1958NASA is Founded September 1958
BankAmerica card.
BankAmericard is Launched
October 1958Game Tree Pruning October 1, 1958The American Express Card November 1958 – 1960The Perceptron November 1958Keyword in Context (KWIC) Indexing November 24 – November 27, 1958The First International Symposium on Artificial Intelligence December 19, 1958The First Voice Transmission from the First Communications Satellite 1959ERMA and MICR 1959The First Practical Monolithic Integrated Circuit Concept 1959The TX-2 Computer for the Study of Human-Computer Interaction 1959The Complicated Discovery of the LASER 1959The Nautical Almanac is Finally Produced by an Electronic Computer 1959First Book on Computer Music 1959 – 1960The U.S. Banking Industry Adopts Magnetic Ink Character Recognition 1959 – 1972The Most Voluminous Printed Catalogue of a Single Library 1959Auto-Encoding of Documents for Information Retrieval 1959Human Versus Machine Intelligence and Communication (1959) 1959Randolph Quirk Founds the Survey of English Usage: Origins of Corpus Linguistics 1959Merle Curti's "The Making of an American Community": the First "Large Scale" Application of Humanities Computing in the U. S. 1959The First Digital Poetry 1959The First Computer Computer Matching Dating Service 1959 – 1961One of the First Computer Models of How People Learn 1959Stephen Parrish's Concordance of the Poems of Matthew Arnold: the First Computerized Literary Concordance 1959The Inspiration for Artificial Neural Networks, Building Blocks of Deep Learning May 28, 1959 – December 7, 1960Grace Hopper and Colleagues Introduce COBOL June 1959The First Formal Definition of Hacker June 1959 – May 31, 1972The Corona Satellite Series: America's First Imagining Satellite Program July 1959Machines Can Learn from Past Errors July 3, 1959The Beginning of Expert Systems for Medical Diagnosis August 14, 1959The First Photograph of Earth from an Orbiting Satellite September 16, 1959
Xerox 914.
The Xerox 914
December 1959 – 1975Highlights of the Digital Equipment Corporation PDP Series of Minicomputers 1960John Horty Pioneers Computer-Assisted Legal Research 1960The First Commercially Available General Purpose Computer with Transistor Logic 1960The Monotype Monomatic Hot Type Machine is Introduced 1960
William A Fetter: while working for Boeing, made the first computer model of the human body (
William Fetter Coins the Term "Computer Graphics"
19606000 Computers are Operational in the U.S., Out of 10,000 Worldwide 1960 – December 9, 2013Greatbatch, Chardack & Gage Implant the First Self-Contained Internally Powered Artificial Pacemaker in a Human 1960John McCarthy Intoduces LISP, The Language of Choice for Artificial Intelligence 1960PLATO 1: The First Electronic Learning System 1960 – November 20, 1968"Prater-Wei," The First Software Patent 1960Theodore Maiman Invents the First Working Laser Circa 1960The Johns Hopkins Beast 1960The First and Only Use of Smell-O-Vision 1960The National Library of Medicine Introduces Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) March 1960Licklider Describes "Man-Computer Symbiosis" April 1, 1960The TIROS 1 Satellite Transmits the First Television Picture from Space September 13 – September 15, 1960The First Symposium on Bionics September 21, 1960The Kennedy-Nixon Presidential Debates: The Beginning of Television's Dominance over Print as a Popular News Medium November 1960Technical Basis for the Development of Phreaking December 1960"Colossal Typewriter" : One of the Earliest Computer Text Editors December 6 – December 7, 1960COBOL Allows Compatibility Between Computers Made by Different Manufacturers 1961Arthur C. Clarke Publishes "Dial F for Frankenstein," an Inspiration for Tim Berners-Lee 1961The QUOTRON Computerized Stock-Quotation System Is Introduced 1961Crick & Brenner Propose The Genetic Code 1961Compugraphic Develops a Special-Purpose Typesetting Computer 1961"Compatible Time Sharing System," Precursor of Word Processing and Email 1961George Forsythe Coins the Term "Computer Science" 1961 – 1962"Expensive Typewriter": The First Word Processing Program 1961Brenner, Jacob & Meselson Demonstrate the Existence of Messenger RNA 1961Jacob & Monod Explain the Basic Process of Regulating Gene Expression in Bacteria 1961The IBM 7094 is The First Computer to Sing January 17, 1961President Eisenhower Warns About the Increasing Influence of the Military-Industrial Complex April 12, 1961Yuri Gagarin Becomes the First Human to Travel into Space and the First to Orbit the Earth May 1961 – 1962Wesley Clark Builds the LINC, Perhaps the First Mini-Computer May 31, 1961Leonard Kleinrock Writes the First Paper on Data Networking Theory October 19, 1961Texas Instruments Delivers the First Integrated Circuit Computer: An Achievement in Miniaturization December 28, 1961Origins of the IBM System/360 1962Spacewar, the First Computer Game for a Commercially Available Computer 1962Rachel Carson Issues "Silent Spring" 1962McLuhan Issues "The Gutenberg Galaxy" 1962Computers Drive Linotype Hot Metal Typesetters 1962Inforonics Develops One of the First Data Publishing and Retrieval Systems 1962Nick Holonyak, Jr. Invents the First Visible LED 1962ICPSR, The Largest Archive of Digital Social Science Data, is Founded at the University of Michigan 1962Fritz Machlup Introduces the Concept of "The Information Economy" 1962Bell Labs Develops the First Digitally Multiplexed Transmission of Voice Signals 1962Roger Tomlinson Develops the First True Operational Geographic Information System (GIS) 1962Alvar Ellegård Makes the First Use of Computers to Study Disputed Authorship April 1962Kleinrock Introduces the Concept Later Known as Packet Switching Circa June 1962Licklider & Clark Publish "Online Man-Computer Communication" July 10, 1962TELSTAR 1: The First Satellite to Relay Signals from Earth to Satellite and Back July 11 – July 23, 1962Telstar 1 Relays the First Live Trans-Atlantic TV Broadcasts July 28, 1962First of the "Ten Greatest Software Bugs of All Time" August 28, 1962Among the Beginnings of Computer Art in the United States October 1962Douglas Engelbart Issues "Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework" October 1, 1962Licklider at the Information Processing Techniques Office, Begins Funding Research that Leads to the ARPANET November 1962"The potential contributions of computers depend upon their use by very human human beings." December 1962General Motors and IBM Develop the First CAD Program 1963Edward Zajac Produces the First Computer-Animated Film 1963ASCII is Promulgated 1963Ivan Sutherland Creates the First Graphical User Interface 1963Compugraphic Develops the First General Typesetting Computers 1963Bob Dylan's "The Times They Are A-Changin' " 1963Foundation of Engelbart's Augmentation Research Center 1963 – 1966Using his BEFLIX Computer Animation Language, Ken Knowlton Produces "A Computer Technique for the Production of Animated Movies" 1963Feigenbaum & Feldman Issue "Computers and Thought," the First Anthology on Artificial Intelligence 1963Julio Cortázar Issues the First "Hypertext" Novel, Before Hypertext 1963John Q. Morton Applies Computing to Authorship of the Pauline Epistles April 25, 1963Licklider Describes the "Intergalactic Computer Network" May 1963 – 1965Machine Perception of Three Dimensional Solids July 16 – July 27, 1963
Detail of cover of Printing and the Mind of Man.  Please click to see entire image.
The Printing and the Mind of Man Exhibition
July 26, 1963The First Geosynchronous Communications Satellite is Launched October 6, 1963Probably the First Book Typeset by Computer October 14, 1963The Beinicke Rare Book & Manuscript Library Opens at Yale November 1963Touch-Tone Dialing is Introduced November 20, 1963First Use of the Term "Hacker" in the Context of Computing November 23, 1963The Assassination of John F. Kennedy & its Coverage on Radio & Television 1964Mathematical Theory of Data Communications 1964On Distributed Communications 1964The First Commercial Computers to Use Integrated Circuits 1964The First Online Reservation System 1964Social Security Numbers as Identifiers 1964Thomas Kurtz & John Kemeny Invent BASIC 1964The First Computerized Encyclopedia 1964Science Citation Index 1964
The First to Create Three-Dimensional Images of the Human Body Using a Computer
1964IBM's Magnetic Tape/Selectric Typewriter Begins "Word Processing" 1964Bitzer & Willson Invent the First Plasma Video Display (Neon Orange) 1964 – 1966Woodrow Bledsoe Originates of Automated Facial Recognition 1964Marshall McLuhan's "The Medium is the Message" 1964Bertram Gross Coins the Term "Information Overload" 1964 – March 24, 1970IBM Receives the Fundamental Patent for Disk Drives 1964 – 1966Joseph Weizenbaum Writes ELIZA: A Pioneering Experiment in Artificial Intelligence Programming 1964Mosteller & Wallace Apply Computing in Disputed Authorship Investigation of The Federalist Papers January 1964MEDLARS: The First Large Scale Computer-Based Retrospective Search Service Available to the General Public January 11, 1964Luther Terry Issues The Surgeon General's Report on Smoking and Health February 14, 1964Texas Instruments & Zenith Radio Introduce a Hearing Aid, the First Consumer Product Containing an Integrated Circuit March – June 1964Solomonoff Begins Algorithmic Information Theory April 7, 1964The IBM System/360 Family is Introduced May 1964720 Million Copies Printed and Distributed in Under Four Years August 1964The Rand Tablet: One of the Earliest Tablet Computers and the First Reference to Electronic Ink August 19, 1964SYNCOM 3, The First Geostationary Communication Satellite, Is Launched September 9 – September 11, 1964Arader, Parrish & Bessinger Organize the First Humanities Computing or Digital Humanities Conference October 1964Introduction of the Moog Synthesizer November 1964A Meeting Between Licklider and Lawrence G. Roberts Leads to the Original Planning for What Would Eventually Become ARPANET November 6, 1964TYPESET and RUNOFF: Text Formatting Program and Forerunner of Word Processors 1965
Example of image from Computer Graphics in Communication.  Please click to view larger image.
William Fetter Issues the First Book on Computer Graphics
1965Licklider Issues "Libraries of the Future" 1965Honeywell Produces an Early Home Computer? 1965Tom Van Vleck & Noel Morris Write One of the First Email Programs 1965U.S. Senate Hearings on the Invasion of Privacy by Computers 1965Ted Nelson Coins the Terms Hypertext, Hypermedia, and Hyperlink 1965The U.S. Postal Services Introduces OCR 1965 – 2009Charles Kao Proposes Optical Fibers as a Medium for Communication 1965 – 1969The TUTOR Programming Language for Education and Games 1965 – 1968Henriette Avram Develops the MARC Cataloguing Standard 1965Irving John Good Originates the Concept of the Technological Singularity 1965Theodore Schellenberg Issues "The Management of Archives" is Published 1965Feigenbaum, Djerassi & Lederberg Develop DENDRAL the First Expert System 1965 – 1966Carver Mead Builds the First Schottky-Barrier Gate Field Effect Transistor 1965 – 1966Michael Noll's "Human or Machine" : Comparing Computer-Generated Art with Human Created Art January 1965John Alan Robinson Introduces the Resolution Principle February 5 – November 26, 1965The Earliest Public Exhibitions of Computer Art April 1965The Cooley-Tukey FFT Algorithm April 1965Maurice Wilkes Introduces Memory Caching April 6, 1965INTELSAT 1: The First Commercial Communications Satellite to be Placed in Geosynchronous Orbit April 19, 1965Gordon Moore Promulgates "Moore's Law" July 1965
Detail of cover of the July 1965 issue of Fortune.  Please click to see entire image.
Walter Allner Designs the First Magazine Cover Using Computer Graphics
October 1965Lawrence G. Roberts Does the First "Actual Network Experiment" 1966The NY Stock Exchange Completes Automation of Trading 1966Semi-Conductor Memory Replaces Magnetic-Core Memory 1966The IRS Completes Computerization of Income-Tax Processing 1966Robert H. Dennard of IBM Invents DRAM 1966Aaron Klug Invents Digital Image Processing 1966The Amateur Computer Society, Possibly the First Personal Computer Club, is Founded 1966Data Corporation Develops a Computer-Assisted Full-Text Inventory System 1966Roger K. Summit's DIALOG Information Retrieval System is Operational at Lockheed Aircraft 1966The Second Vatican Council Abolishes the Index Librorum Prohibitorum 1966Cyrus Levinthal Builds the First System for Interactive Display of Molecular Structures 1966NCR Issues the Smallest Published Edition of the Bible, and the First to Reach the Moon 1966Douglas Parkhill Issues a Predictive Discussion of the Features of Cloud Computing 1966 – 1972Stanford Research Institute Develops Shakey, the First Intelligent Mobile Robot July 1966"Bobb Goldsteinn" Coins the Term Multimedia July 4, 1966President Lyndon B. Johnson Signs the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) September 1966Joseph Raben Founds "Computers and the Humanities", the First Humanities Computing Journal October 1966Laurence G. Roberts Describes Networking Research at MIT December 1966Lawrence G. Roberts Begins the Design of the ARPANET 1967 – 1983Jacques Bertin's "Sémiologie graphique" is Published 1967Donald Watts Davies Performs an Experiment in Packet Switching 1967Data Corporation Develops a Full-Text Interactive Search Service 1967Ted Nelson & Andries van Dam Develop the First Hypertext Editing System 1967 – June 25, 1974Jack Kilby and Texas Instruments Invent the First Hand-Held Electronic Calculator 1967The Museum Computer Network is Founded in New York 1967Robert MacArthur & E.O. Wilson Issue "The Theory of "Island" Biogeography" 1967Andrew Viterbi Develops the Viterbi Algorithm 1967Henry Kucera and Nelson Francis Issue "Computational Analysis of Present-Day American English" 1967Edmund Bowles Issues The First Anthology of Research on Humanities Computing 196735,000 Computers Are Operational in the United States 1967Ellis Batten Page Begins Automated Essay Scoring March 1967U.S. Senate Hearings on Computer Privacy Occur April 1967Wesley Clark Suggests the Use of Interface Message Processors on ARPANET Circa May – September 1967Protecting Security in a Networked Environment June 1967Steven A. Coons Develops the "Coons Patch" in Computer Graphics June 25, 1967"Our World," the First Live, International Satellite Television Production June 27, 1967 – November 17, 1970Douglas Engelbart Invents the Computer Mouse July 5, 1967Frederick G. Kilgour Begins Development of OCLC October 1967Donald W. Davies Introduces the Term "Packet" to Describe Discrete Blocks of Data October 1967Lawrence G. Roberts Issues the First Paper on the Design of the ARPANET 1968The Computer Artis Society, the First Society for Computer Art, is Founded in London 1968Ivan Sutherland and Bob Sproull Create the First Virtual Reality Head Mounted Display System 1968Evans & Sutherland Commercialize the Use of Computers as Simulators 1968The HP 9100A, the First Marketed, Mass-Produced Programmable Calculator, or Personal Computer 1968 – 1981NUC: The Largest Printed Bibliography, Complete in 754 Folio Volumes 1968Stanley Kubrick & Arthur C. Clarke Create "2001: A Space Odyssey" 1968Philip K. Dick Imagines Replicants 1968Unbundling at IBM Gives Rise to the Software and Services Industry 1968 – 1984Helmut Gröttrup & Jürgen Dethloff Invent the "Smart Card" 1968Stewart Brand Issues "The Whole Earth Catalog": Google and Blogging before the Internet 1968Stephen A. Benton Invents the Rainbow Hologram or Benton Hologram 1968Andries van Dam Develops Probably the First Hypertext System Used in Education 1968Max Perutz Solves the Molecular Structure of Hemoglobin at High Resolution 1968"Incredible Machine" State of the Art in Computer Generated Film, Graphics and Music in 1968 Circa 1968 – 1985Lee Harrison's Scanimate: The First Widely Applied Analog Computer Animation System January 1968Aaron Klug Invents Three-Dimensional Image Processing February 1968Federico Faggin and Colleagues Invent Silicon Gate Technology at Fairchild Semiconductor April 1968Licklider & Taylor Describe Features of the Future ARPANET; Description of a Computerized Personal Assistant April 1968The First U.S. Conference on Museum Computing Occurs at the Metropolitan Museum of Art July 18, 1968 – 1985Landmark Products from the Early Years of Intel Corporation August 1968Max Perutz Opens Up the Field of Molecular Pathology August 2 – October 20, 1968Cybernetic Serendipity: The First Widely-Attended International Exhibition of Computer Art August 5, 1968The Vanderbilt Television News Archive is Founded October 7 – October 11, 1968The Term Software Engineering is Coined November 1968Philip Bagley Coins the Term "Metadata" November 27, 1968 – February 9, 1969K. G. Pontius Hultén Curates "The Machine as Seen at the End of the Mechanical Age" : An Art Exhibition December 1968
Cover of Computer Art and Human Response by Lloyd Sumner.
Lloyd Sumner Issues The First Monograph by a Computer Artist
December 9, 1968Douglas Engelbart Demonstrates Hypertext, Text Editing, Windows, Email and a Mouse: "The Mother of All Demos" December 24, 1968The First Manned Apollo Flights Occur Circa 1969 – 1970The First ATM is Installed at Chemical Bank in New York 1969Kenneth Thompson & Dennis Ritchie Develop UNIX, Making Open Systems Possible 196932,393 New Books Are Published in the U.K. 1969Compuserve, the First Commercial Online Service, is Founded 1969Willard Boyle & George Smith Develop the CCD, a Sensor for Recording Images 1969 – 1971Gary Starkweather at Xerox Invents the Laser Printer Circa 1969IBM Introduces the Generalized Markup Language (GML) 1969Konrad Zuse Issues "Rechnender Raum," the First Book on Digital Physics Circa 1969EMS Produces the First Digital Sampler in the First Digital Music Studio 1969Houghton Mifflin Issues the First Dictionary Based on Corpus Linguistics 1969Heinz von Foerster Issues the First Book on Computer Music to Include Recordings of Compositions 1969 – December 15, 1978David Gregg & James Russell Invent the Laserdisc 1969 – 1971The Datapoint 2200: Precursor of the Personal Computer and the Microprocessor 1969The First Full-Length Audio Recording of a Book 1969 – 1984Derek Austin Develops the PRECIS Preserved Context Index System April 7, 1969Steve Crocker Embodies Peer to Peer Architecture (P2P) as One of the Key Concepts of the ARPANET May 1, 1969Jerry Sanders and Colleagues from Fairchild Semiconductor Found AMD July 21, 1969A Problem with the Apollo 11 Guidance Computer Nearly Prevents the First Moon Walk August 30, 1969Leonard Kleinrock Establishes the First ARPANET Node and the First Network Connection October 29, 1969Charley Kline Sends the First Message Over the ARPANET December 5, 1969The First Four Nodes on the ARPANET Circa 1970Acquiring New Archival Material at the Rate of 1 Mile per Year 1970Xerox PARC is Founded 1970Norman Abramson Builds the First Packet-Switched Wireless Data Network 1970 – 1977Corning Glass Introduces Optical Fibers Enabling the Internet Backbone 1970Negroponte's "The Architecture Machine" is Published 1970DEC and Centronics Introduce the First Dot Matrix Printers 1970Crutzen Proves that Nitrous Oxide Impacts the Stratospheric Ozone Layer 1970 – 1971The Kenback-1, the First Stored-Program "Personal Computer" January 1970 – May 1973IBM Performs the First Test of Magnetic Stripe Transaction Card Technology February 1970Rand Issues the First Systematic Review of Computer Security Issues March 1970ARPANET Spans the U.S. June 1970Edgar Codd Publishes the Definitive Model for Relational Database Management Systems June 30, 1970The IBM System/370 Uses Semiconductor Memory October 5, 1970PBS is Founded November 14, 1970UNESCO Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property 1970 December 1970Gilbert Hyatt Files the First General Patent on the Microprocessor, Later Invalidated 1971IBM Introduces Speech Recognition Technology 1971IBM Introduces the Floppy Disk 1971Bell & Newell Publish "Computer Structures" 1971The Arpanet has 15 Nodes 1971Dennis Ritchie Writes the C Programming Language 1971Godfrey Hounsfield Invents Computed Tomography (CT) 1971George Laurer of IBM Develops the Universal Product Code 1971Phreaker Underground Telephone System Culture 1971The Creeper Worm, the First Computer Virus 1971
Cover of Computergraphik-Computerkunst, by H.W. Franke. Please click on image to see larger version of image.
Franke Issues the First Comprehensive Treatise on Computer Graphics with the First History of Computer Art
1971 – 1973Teletext: "The First Widely Used Implementation of the Information Revolution" March 1971Ray Tomlinson Selects the @ in Email June 1971The Gouraud Shading Method for Polygon Smoothing is Developed June 13, 1971Daniel Ellsberg Releases the Pentagon Papers July 1971Lawrence Roberts Writes the First Email Management Program July 4, 1971Invention of eBooks: The First Digital Library August 26, 1971Alden Library at Ohio University Becomes the First Library to do Online Cataloguing September 1971"Galaxy Game", the Earliest Coin-Operated Computer or Video Game October 1971Medline is Operational November 1971"Computer Space," the First Commercially Sold Coin-Operated Video Game 1972The British Library is Established as a Separate Entity 1972Marianne McDonald Introduces Thesaurus Linguae Graecae, a Digital Library of Greek Literature 1972 – 1974Expensive Electronic Calculators Flood the Market 1972One of the First Touchscreens Appears on the Plato IV System 1972The HP-35, the First Handheld Scientific Calculator 1972
Screen capture of Ed Catmull's left hand - from the world's first ever 3D rendered movie created in 1972 by Ed Catmull and Fred Park.
The First 3D Rendered Movie
1972 – 1977The First Microcomputer Controlled Electric Industrial Robot 1972PARRY: An Artificial Intelligence Program with "Attitude" March 17, 1972The First Patent for MRI May 24, 1972Magnavox Odyssey, the First Home Video Game Console, Uses a TV Screen as a Display July 23, 1972The Beginnings of the Landsat Program September 1972Pong: The First Commercially Successful Video Game December 7, 1972SPACEWAR: Fanatic Life and Symbolic Death Among the Computer Bums December 7, 1972One of the Most Widely Distributed Photographic Images: The Blue Marble Photograph of the Earth 1973Cohen & Boyer Demonstrate the First Practical Method for Cloning a Gene 1973The Xerox Alto: Conceptually, the First Personal Computer System 1973The Lexis Online Information Service is Introduced 1973The Plato IV System, Probably the World's First Online Community 1973"Community Memory," the First Public Computerized Bulletin Board System 1973The First International Connections to ARPANET 1973Harris Corporation Introduces Editing Terminals for Newspapers 1973The First Electronic Pagination System, Forerunner of Email and Instant Messaging Circa 1973Invention of the Word "Internet" 1973The Beginnings of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 1973The First Major Film to Use 2D Digital Image Processing 1973Discovery of Citation Mapping 1973 – 1974Maze War, the First Networked 3D Multi-User First Person Shooter Game 1973Robert Ledley Develops the First Whole-Body CT Scanner 1973 – 1974Gary Kildall Develops the CP/M Operating System for Microcomputers 1973The Tadiran Mastiff: The First Modern Surveillance UAV or Drone 1973The Brain-Computer Interface 1973The Politics of Nonviolent Action 1973 – 1990Book Burning and Personal Book Collecting by Chilean Dictator Augusto Pinochet 1973 – 1978John B. Smith's Early Attempts at "Computer Criticism" of Literature 1973 Introduction of the MCM/70, the First Truly Portable Computer & the First Truly Usable Microcomputer System February 1973The Earliest Commercial, Non-Kit Personal Computer Based on a Microprocessor March 19732000 People Use the ARPANET July 1973The Code of Fair Information Practice November 1973Coining of the Concept and Term "Datagram" December 28, 1973The Endangered Species Act of 1973 1974The First of the Three Cohen-Boyer Recombinant DNA Cloning Patents is Granted 1974Systems Network Architecture is Announced 1974SEQUEL (SQL) is Developed 1974First Use of the Term "Mainframe" 1974The First Computer Employing RISC 1974"A Sweeping and Controversial Program" of Combined Library Operations 1974Virtual Machines 1974 – 1975The First Computer Role-Playing Game: Dungeons & Dragons 1974Raymond Kurzweil Introduces the First Omni-Font Optical Character Recognition System 1974Ted Nelson Publishes a Manifesto of the Microcomputer Revolution 1974SGML is Invented 1974Rowland & Molina Suggest that CFCs Deplete the Ozone Layer 1974 – 1980Publication of Roberto Busa's Index Thomisticus: Forty Years of Data Processing 1974The HP-65, the First Magnetic Card-Programmable Handheld Calculator March 1974Probably the First Advertised Personal Computer Sold in Kit Form May 1974The Privacy Act of 1974 May 5, 1974Cerf & Kahn Publish TCP: A Protocol for Packet Network Communication November 20, 1974An Antitrust Suit to Break up AT&T 1975 – 1982Mandelbrot's "The Fractal Geometry of Nature" 1975Robert Metcalf Invents Ethernet 1975200,000 Computers are Operating in the U. S. 1975Byte Magazine, One of the First Personal Computer Magazines, Begins Publication 1975 – November 1977The First Demonstrations of TCP/IP 1975 – 1989Origins & Early Development of PostScript and Scalable Digital Type Fonts at Xerox PARC and Adobe Systems 1975Books on Tape is Founded 1975 – 1976"Adventure," the First Computer Text Adventure Game Circa 1975The Warez Scene Emerges 1975Frederick Brooks Writes "The Mythical Man-Month" 1975"Home Pong" is Released 1975Barnes & Noble Becomes the First American Bookseller to Discount New Books 1975The "Utah Teapot" is Created 1975"Type Foundries of America," the First Book in the Graphic Arts Field Produced from Cold Type Circa 1975Myron Krueger's Videoplace Pioneers "Artificial Reality" 1975One of the First GPU's January 1975 – 1976The MITS Altair, the First Personal Computer to Get "Wide Notice" Among Enthusiasts February 1975The Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA March 1975The Homebrew Computer Club Holds its First Meeting April 4, 1975 – November 20, 1985Landmarks in the Prehistory and Early History of Microsoft May 19, 1975 – January 8, 1982The Antitrust Case, U.S. v. IBM, is Tried and Eventually Withdrawn May 26, 1975 – 2014Finding Additional Leaves of the Codex Sinaiticus September 1975IBM's First "Portable" Computer: $19,975 December 1975Invention of the Digital Camera 1976The First Commercially Available Laser Printer 1976The First Word Processing Program for a Personal Computer 1976First Print-to-Speech Reading Machine 1976 – 1983The Compact Disc (CD) is Developed 1976Public Key Cryptography is Suggested 1976The First Major Film to Incorporate 3D Computer Generated Images 1976Papermaking by Hand in England in 1976 1976The World Event/Interaction Survey: A Pioneering Application of Systems Theory to International Relations January 1976The First Journal on Software for Personal Computers April 1, 1976 – December 13, 2011Foundation of Apple Computer and the Origin of the Name April 7, 1976Genentech is Founded June 1976The First CRT Based Word Processor June 1976The English Short Title Catalogue (ESTC) is Conceived July 1976The First Detailed Description of Ethernet July 1976The Apple I is Released 1977Prototype Cellular Telephone System 1977Lawrence Ellison Founds Software Development Laboratories 1977Apple I: The First Personal Computer Sold as a Fully Assembled Product 1977Gilbert & Maxam Develop a Technique for Sequencing DNA 1977The Sanger Method of Rapid DNA Sequencing 1977Wang Inaugurates the Concept of Office Automation 1977Atari Introduces the First Successful Video Game Console Using Plug-in Cartridges 1977The First Multi-Player Computer Games Evolve on the Plato IV-V System 1977Making MRI Feasible 1977 – 1979The Interactive Text Adventure Game "Zork" 1977The First Hand-Held Entirely Digital Electronic Game 1977 – 1979TEX and Metafont 1977The Sayre Glove February 1977The First GPS Satellite May 1, 1977The First Intentional Spam June 11, 1977The First Speech Synthesis Chip August 20, 1977 – September 5, Launching "Messages in a Bottle" into the Cosmic Ocean September 5, 1977 – August 25, 2012The First Manmade Object to Cross the Heliopause and Enter Interstellar Space 1978A Printed Book Entitled Toward Paperless Information Systems 1978The Network Nation 1978 – 1980dBase II, the First Best-Selling Database Program for the PC 1978The First Computer Worm 1978 – 1979Early Interactive Computing and Virtual Reality 1978 – June 30, 2012The Minitel 1978Probably the First U. S. Legislation against Computer Crimes 1978 – 1979Fictional Vision of the Electronic Book and the Internet 1978
"Newsfront": Dramatizing the Transition from Newsreels to TV News
February 16, 1978The First Dial-UP CBBS 1979 – 1980Compuserve 1979The First Spreadsheet Program 1979Making Small Portable Digital Telephones Possible 1979Robert Metcalf Founds 3Com 1979The First Widely Used Music Scheduling System 1979The Printing Press as an Agent of Change 1979 – 1980The First Graphical Computer Adventure Game 1979Foundation of the American Association for Artificial Intelligence 1979 – 1980Probably the Smallest Set of Physical Books 1979 – 1983Bjarne Stroustrup Develops the C++ Programming Language 1979 – 1980Vol Libre: The First Fractal CGI Movie 1979Using Laserdiscs to Allow Public Access to Electronic Information in a Museum 1979Introduction of the LINPACK Benchmarks for the Measurement of Floating Point Computing Power 1979The "Mead & Conway Revolution" in VLSI Integrated Circuit Education 1979The Invention of Online Shopping 1979The Neocognitron, Perhaps the Earliest Multilayered Artificial Neural Network January 1979The First Silicon Compiler May 1, 1979The Basis for Cellular Telephone Technology September 1979Origins of the Computer History Museum 1980Nexis is Introduced 1980USENET: One of the First Computer Network Communications Systems 1980Bell Labs Develops Digital Cellular Telephone Technology 1980 – 1983Umberto Eco Publishes "The Name of the Rose" Circa 1980Fujio Masuoka Invents Flash Memory January 1980The First Flight Simulator Program for a Personal Computer May 22, 1980Pac-Man is Introduced June 1, 1980Ted Turner Launches CNN, the First All-News Television Channel 1981The Xerox Star: The "Office of the Future" 1981There are 213 Hosts on the Arpanet 1981CSNET, an Alternative to ARPANET 1981The First Dance Notation Software 1981"Computer Gaming World," the First Magazine on Computer Games 1981Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) 1981Discovery of Quantum Dots April 1981The Osborne 1: The First Commercially Successful "Portable" Computer July 1981Quick and Dirty Operating System Becomes MS-DOS August 1981 – 1997The First Commercial Electronic Camera--Not Digital August 12, 1981IBM Introduces the IBM 5150- The IBM PC 1982Lotus Development Corporation is Founded 1982"Blade Runner" 1982U.S. Newspaper Program Microfilms Newspapers 1982The First "Clamshell" Laptop? 1982One of the First Films to Incorporate Computer Graphics 1982IBM DB2 is Introduced 1982TCP/IP is Established as the Basis for ARPANET 1982The First Whole Genome Shotgun Sequence 1982The First Computer Virus Spread by Floppy Disk 1982The First Formally Recognized Archival Description Standards in the U.S. 1982The First Completely Computer-Generated (CGI) Cinematic Image Sequence in a Feature Film 1982Defining a General Framework for Studying Complex Biological Systems 1982 – 1989The DataGlove, a Hand Gesture Interface Device February 24, 1982Sun Microsystems Announces its First Workstation June 1982The First IBM PC Compatible Computer July 1982William Gibson Coins the Word Cyberspace August 1982The First Cheap Home Computer, and the Best-Selling Computer of its Time September 19, 1982Origins of the Smiley on the Internet November 1982The First Scanner? November 1982Microsoft Flight Simulator 1.0 December 16, 1982The First Cellular Telephone Service in the United Sates 1983The "Trash" 80: The First Notebook Computer? 1983Oracle Corporation 19836,000,000 Personal Computers are Sold in the U.S. 1983ARPANET Splits into ARPANET and MILNET 1983"Dial-a-Game": the Earliest Origins of America Online (AOL) 1983 – 1989Keyboarding over 350,000,000 Characters 1983Early Form of Digital Rights Management 1983The Declining Role of Print in Total Information Flow 1983One of the First Practical Data Compression Systems 1983Possibly the Earliest Electronic Publication on Art 1983 – May 1984The First Commercially Available IBM PC Compatible ROM Bios 1983A Computer's Operating System Can be Protected by Copyright 1983 – 1986Invention of Stereolithography or 3D Printing January 1983The First "Killer App" for the PC January 1983The Earliest Fictional Treatment of Word Processing by a Prominent Literary Author January 1983The 1970 UNESCO Convention is Implemented in U.S. Law January 1, 1983ARPANET Requires TCP/IP January 3, 1983 – January 3, 2013Time Magazine's 1983 "Machine of the Year" is a Personal Computer September 23, 1983The GNU Free Software Project October 13, 1983 – 1984The First Commercial Analog Cellular Telephone Service November 1983Domain Name System November 1983Cyberpunk Coined November 1983One of the First Commercially Available Touchscreen Computers November 10, 1983Coining the Term "Computer Virus" 1984"Cyberspace" Popularized 1984USENET Introduces Moderated Newsgroups 1984There are Over 1000 Hosts on the Internet 1984The First Desktop Publishing Program 1984 – 1986The Digital Domesday Project--Doomed to Early Digital Obsolescence 1984 – 2008The Greatest PC Keyboard of All Time? 19842600: The Hacker Quarterly 1984
Detail from cover of The Policeman's Beard is Half Constructed, the first book written by a computer program.  Please click on image to see image of entire cover of book.
The First Book Written by a Computer Program
1984A Guide to All PC Software in One Volume 1984The First Book on Neuromorphic Computing 1984"The Last Starfighter": One of the First Films to Make Extensive Use of Computer Graphic Imagery January 1, 1984Breakup of AT&T January 24, 1984Steve Jobs Introduces the "Mac" May 3, 1984Michael Dell Founds "PC's Limited" June 1984Perhaps the first Underground "Ezine" September 1984The First Music CDs Pressed in the United States November 15, 1984The First Study of Ancient DNA (aDNA) December 1984Cisco Systems is Founded December 1984 – April 1987Origins of the Human Genome Project December 7, 1984 – 1995The Origins of Groupware 1985The Perseus Digital Library Project at Tufts University Begins 1985Among the Earliest Practical Digital Libraries 1985Avatar in the Context of Online Representation of a User 1985Nintendo's Super Mario Bros. 1985The First Fully Computer-Generated Character in a Film 1985George A. Miller Begins WordNet, a Lexical Database 1985Kasparov Defeats 32 Different Chess Computers 1985The CD-ROM is Introduced 1985Probably the First Electronic Encyclopedia 1985First Description of a Universal Quantum Computer 1985Rediscovery of Electronic Images Created by Andy Warhol on an Amiga Computer January 1985The First Laserprinter for a Microcomputer March 1985The GNU Manifesto March 15, 1985The First Registered Internet Domain April 1, 1985One of the First Online Communities May 1, 1985Quantum Computer Services, Precursor of AOL, Launches an Online Bulletin-Board Service May 16, 1985Discovery of the Antarctic Ozone Hole July 1985 – 1986Aldus PageMaker: The First Widely-Used Desktop Publishing Program October 1985The First Hand-Held Graphing Calculator October 4, 1985The Free Software Foundation 1986There are Over 5000 Hosts on ARPANET 1986The First Hand-Held Electronic Book, or e-Book 1986 – 1987The Internet Backbone is Funded and Created 1986The First Semi-Automatic DNA Sequencer 1986Influential on the Development of Cyberpunk 1986NSFNET Connects Five Supercomputer Centers 1986Electronic Tax Filing Begins 1986Probably the Best Book History and Library Film Set in the Middle Ages January 1986"Brain", the First PC Virus Epidemic, Created in Lahore, Pakistan January 8, 1986The Hacker Manifesto October 1986SGML Standard is Accepted November 12, 1986The First Map of the Functioning Structure of an Entire Brain 1987The First DNA Sequencing Machine 1987Soy Ink is Introduced 1987The First Digital Image Database of Cultural Materials 1987There are Over 10,000 Hosts on the Internet 198725,000,000 PCs Have Been Sold in the U.S. 1987 – February 1990The Origins of Adobe Photoshop 1987"Slow Fires: On the Preservation of the Human Record" 1987GSM is Developed 1987Roy Harris Issues "The Language Machine," a Critique of Computational Linguistics 1987John Burrows Founds Computational Sylistics 1987 – 1990The First Hypertext Fiction: "Afternoon, a story" 1987Introduction of the GIF Image Format May 12, 1987Foundation of the First Commercial ISP November 1987"Toward a National Research Telecommunications Network" 1988OCLC Acquires the Publisher of the Dewey Classification System 1988The First Computer-Animated Film to Win an Academy Award 1988The First Operational Online Antiquarian Bookselling Site 1988 – 2000Boing-Boing Begins as a Print Magazine 1988International Standard for Computer-to-Computer Information Retrieval 1988The First Computer Games Developers Conference 1988Mathematica 1.0 1988The First Analog Silicon Retina January 1988Australia Issues the First Polymer Banknote ($10) February 14, 1988Probably the Worst Library Fire in History August 29, 1988The Unicode Universal Character Set is Introduced November 2, 1988The First Computer Worm to Attract Wide Attention November 4, 1988The National Center for Biotechnology Information is Founded 1989There are over 100,000 Hosts on the Internet 1989The First Gateways Between Private E-Mail Carriers and the Internet 1989Digital HDTV is Developed at Bell Labs 1989Invention of "Buffered Media," the Basis for Webcasting 1989The First Film to Win an Academy Award for Computer Generated Images 1989The First Holographic Video Display 1989Ingetraut Dahlberg Founds the International Society for Knowledge Organization March 1989An Internet-Based Hypertext System: Conceptual Origin of the World Wide Web September 1989The First Commercially Available Tablet Computer 1990The First "Search Engine" but Not a "Web Search Engine" 1990The American Memory Project 1990The Electronic Frontier Foundation is Founded 1990Foundation of the Coalition for Networked Information 1990ARPANET Folds into the Internet 1990TED: Technology, Entertainment and Design 1990DynaText, an Electronic Publishing Tool July 1990 – July 2002Sirius Satellite Radio is Founded November 3, 1990An Encoded Sculpture, Still Not Decoded November 12, 1990Berners-Lee Plans the World Wide Web November 13, 1990The First Web Page December 25, 1990The First Web Browser and Web Server 1991"Clearing the Way for Electronic Commerce" 1991Introduction of the PDF 1991TrueType Fonts 1991Expressed Sequence Tags 1991The First Webcam 1991The WAIS System for Searching Text is Introduced 1991Junk Faxes are Outlawed 1991The First Book on Typography on Personal Computers 1991
The T-1000 cyborg as played by Robert Parker.
The First Partially Computer-Generated Main Character
January 17, 1991Peter Arnett at CNN Broadcasts the First Live Television Coverage of War March 1991First Release of the First Web Browser March 26 – March 28, 1991Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility March 27, 1991The First GSM Cellular Phone Call April – August 26, 1991The Beginning of the Linux Open-Source Operating System July 1, 19912G Cellular Telecom August – November 1, 1991The First Magnetic Resonance Image of Human Brain Function August 6, 1991Berners-Lee Makes Web Server and Web Browser Software Available at No Cost September 1991The Gopher Protocol October 1991The Unicode Standard 1.0 is Published October 29, 1991One of the First U.S. Cases in Cyberspace Law December 12, 1991The First Web Server in North America 1992The First Image Posted to the Web 1992There are 50 Web Servers on the Internet 1992The Internet Society 1992Pioneering Collaboration of Electronic Librarianship, Journalism and Telecommunications 1992The Memory of the World Program 1992The Data Discman Electronic Book Device 1992The First e-Book Reader 1992Precursor to Amazon.com's Online Bookstore 1992The First Fully Immersive Augmented Reality System June 1992Visions of a Metaverse August 25, 1992 – May 9, 2014Destruction of the National Library of Bosnia & Herzegovina December 3, 1992Neil Papworth Sends the First SMS Text Message 1993341,634 Percent Growth Rate on the Internet 1993The Electronic Dewey 1993Preserving Access to Digital Information 1993First Library of Digital Images on the Internet 1993 – 1997"The First Successful Online Bookseller Service" 1993Perhaps the First Law Review Symposium Dedicated to Cyberspace 1993Only About 2000 People in China Use the Internet 1993W3C 1993Foundation of Teleport: the First Successful Telepresence Company 1993The Electronic Beowulf 1993Jurassic Park, the First Film to Integrate CGI and Animatronic figures into Live Action Scenes 1993The Web's First and Longest Continuously Running Blog 1993Development of Neural Networks 1993Estimate of Total Internet Traffic in 1993 1993There are 250 Web Servers on the Internet 1993Statistical Machine Translation 1993"Doom" is Introduced 1993 – 2013Nina Katchadourian's Sorted Books Project 1993 – 2013The Spread of Data-Driven Research From 1993 to 2013 January 1993The Singularity February 22, 1993 – January 26, 1994"Babylon 5," the First Television Series to Use Computer Generated Images March 1993Wired 1.01 March 4, 1993The Mosaic Web Browser April 1993 – July 1994The First Tablet Computer with Wireless Connectivity April 22, 1993The First Graphics-Based Web Browser April 30, 1993CERN Releases Rights to World Wide Web Software May 1993The First Commercial Website with the First Online Advertising June 1993The First Web Search Engine? June 1993The Beginning of Video Webcasting over the Internet June 1993The "TOP500" Ranking of Supercomputers July 1993The First Digital Offset Press November 3, 1993The Size and Growth Rate of the Internet in 1993 November 30, 1993The First Web Search Engine? December 6, 1993The First Sourcebook on Digital Libraries? December 21, 1993Situational Aspects of Electronic Libraries in 1993 1994There are 2500 Web Servers and 10,000 Websites 1994World Wide Web Worm 1994Internet Traffic Passes 10 Trilliam Bytes per Month 1994HTTP Packets Surpass FTP Traffic 1994NSFNET Reverts to a Research Network 1994The First Demonstration of Wireless Internet Access 1994Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) 1994 – 1996Google Begins with a Search Engine Called "BackRub" 1994Match.com is Founded 1994FishCam: The Oldest Nearly Continuously Operational Webcam 1994The First Defeat of a Human Champion by a Computer in a Game Compeition 1994Daily Audited Circulation Greater Than Ten Million Printed Copies 1994"Death by Government" Statistics 1900-1987 1994 – 1996Nintendo's "Virtual Boy": the first Mass-Produced Virtual Reality Game System 1994Formulation of Shor's Algorithm for Quantum Computers 1994The First Use of Virtual Reality in a Museum or Archaeological Context 1994The Kansas Event Data System (KEDS): A System for the Machine Coding of International Event Data Based on Pattern Recognition January 1994One of the Earliest Blogs February 17, 1994First Consumer-Priced Digital Camera March 1994"Selling Wine without Bottles" March 1, 1994Digital Library: Gross Structure and Requirements March 12 – March 13, 1994The First Internet Cafe April 1994 – January 18, 1995Yahoo! is Founded April 4, 1994The First Company to Exploit the Economic Potential of the Web April 12, 1994Commercial Spaming Starts with the "Green Card Spam" April 20, 1994The First Full Text Web Search Engine May 1, 1994The Digital Library Federation is Founded May 3 – May 5, 1994First Internet Radio Broadcast Occurs May 25 – May 27, 1994The First International Conference on the World Wide Web June 1994 – February 1996The HTTP Cookie is Invented June 1994The First Web Analytics Vendor June 19 – June 21, 1994The First Conference on the Theory and Practice of Digital Libraries July 1994 – July 1995Amazon.com is Founded August 16, 1994 – February 1995The IBM Simon Personal Communicator: The First Smartphone September 1, 1994The NSF Digital Libraries Initiative: The Origins of Google September 27, 1994The First "Marketing on the Internet" Seminar Series October 1994Whitehouse.gov Becomes Operational October 13, 1994The National Digital Library Program is Announced October 13, 1994The First Commercially Available Web Browser October 31, 1994Steve Jackson Games v. U.S. Secret Service November 1994The Rolling Stones Present the First "Cyberspace Multicast Concert" November 7, 1994The First Traditional Radio Station to Initiate Internet Broadcasts November 10, 1994The First Internet Only Broadcast of a Live Band December 1994The Task Force on Digital Archiving is Created December 1994"From Webspace to Cyberspace": A Pioneering Cultural and Historical Work December 3, 1994PlayStation is Launched 1995Probably the First For-Profit Social Networking Site 1995The First Web Page Tagging System 1995There are Approximately 73,500 Servers; WWW is Generally Equated with the Internet 1995An Online Searchable Archive of Over 1000 Academic Journals 1995"Butterfly, an Information Visualizer" 1995Probably the First Use of the Term "Digital Humanities" January 1995The Bureau of Labor Statistics Begins Publishing on its Website March 1995Craigslist Initiates Free Online Classified Advertisements March 25, 1995The First Wiki April 1995The Apache HTTP Server is Released April 7 – October 1, 1995"The Book and Beyond" Exhibition Takes Place June 1995HighWire Press: Internet-Based Scholarly Publishing June 1995"Johnny Mnemonic": The First Film to Portray a Graphic Vision of Cyberspace July 1995D-Lib Magazine Begins August 9, 1995The Beginning of the "Dot-Com Bubble" September 3, 1995eBay is Founded November 23, 1995ABC's "World News Now" Becomes the First Television Show Broadcast over the Internet December 15, 1995 – July 8, 2013Altavista is Launched 1996968,735 New Different Printed Books Are Produced This Year 1996Abebooks.com is Launched 1996The Kulturarw3 Project 1996Brewster Kahle Founds the Internet Archive 1996The IBM DB2 Universal Database 19961996: The First Year in Which More Email is Sent than Paper Mail 1996There are 100,000 Websites 1996Speech Recognition Technology from 6,700 Characters 1996LexisNexis Exceeds One Billion Documents 1996A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace 1996The World's Smallest Book, in 1996 1996The First Access to the Mobile Web January 1996An Online Textbook of Cyberpsychology is Published January 2, 1996First Recorded Use of the Term, Phishing January 19, 1996NYTimes.com Initiates Online Publication March 20 – March 23, 1996The First ACM International Conference on Digital Libraries April 1996Searchenginewatch.com Begins April 1996 – 2003The First Full-Time Online Webcam Girl July 1996"The Site", the First TV Show to Feature a Character Animated in Real Time July 23, 1996WRAL is the First Station to Broadcast in HDTV in the United States September 1996 – March 1997DVDs are Introduced November 1996U.S. Call to Arms for the Cyber Wars December 20, 1996The WIPO Copyright Treaty is Adopted 1997126,000,000 Metric Tons of Paper Are Consumed 1997The Internet2 Consortium 1997The IEEE Technical Committee on Digital Libraries is Established 1997The California Digital Library is Founded 1997How Much Information is There? 1997Rome is Reborn on Google Earth 1997The First Web Analyzer with Drill-Down and Ad-Hoc Analysis 1997BnF Gallica is Launched 1997Electronic Paper is Developed 1997 – 2002The FBI Implements Carnivore March 1997The First Museums and the Web Conference Occurs April 1997There are 1,000,000 Websites April 1997The Newseum, an Interactive Museum of News and Journalism, is Founded May 11, 1997Kasparov Loses to Deep Blue: The First Time a Human Chess Player Loses to a Computer Under Tournament Conditions June 1997WAP is Established June 26, 1997The Internet is Entitled to the Full Protection Given to Printed Material November 1997
Logo of digital scriptorium page on Bancroft Library website.
Digital Scriptorium is Founded
November 1997"Virtual Medical Worlds" Begins Publication November 20, 1997Perhaps the First Commercially Available Virtual Globe 1998W3C Releases XML 1998Voice Over Internet Protocol is Implemented 1998The Average Person Receives 733 Pieces of Paper Mail Each Year, Half of Which is Junk 1998MP3 is Introduced 1998Printing about the Handpress Using Photo-Offset 1998Origins of Australia's Web Archive 1998NARA Begins ERA for Preservation of Digital Archives 1998The Cluetrain Manifesto 1998The First Long Distance Transmission of One Terabit per Second 1998The Last Printed Edition of Beilstein is Published 1998"You've Got Mail", a Movie about Love, Email, and the Book Trade 1998Using Neural Networks for Word Sense Disambiguation 1998On the Preservation of Knowledge in the Electronic Age 1998700,000 New Book Titles Are Published in 1998 1998The Digital Michelangelo Project 1998 – August 2000The First Interactive Internet Streaming TV Network January 1998 – August 8, 2014Completion of the Online Collaborative English Translation of the Suda January 1998AudioNet (Broadcast.com) Begins the First Continuous Live Webcasts January 29, 1998PageRank is Published on Paper February 14, 1998The Bibliometrics of Science May 1998Venter Founds Celera Genomics June 1998The First "Advanced" or "Freestyle" or "Centaur" Chess Event Circa September – December 1998MSN Search is Launched September 7, 1998Google is Founded September 30, 1998ICANN is Founded October 12, 1998The Digital Millenium Copyright Act October 28, 1998Supercomputer ASCI Blue-Pacific SST November 6, 1998President Clinton Sends the First Ever Presidential Email December 1998MyFamily.com December 1998Internet Protocol, Version 6 (IPv6) Promulgated December 23, 1998"Where's George?" Begins 199964,711 New Books on Paper are Published in the U.S. 1999Storing Public Records Electronically 1999Computers Have Not Caused a Reduction in Paper Usage or Printing 1999Domain Names are Property 1999Early English Books Online 1999"Lots of Copies Keep Stuff Safe" (LOCKSS): a Digital Information Preservation System for Libraries and Publishers 1999NewspaperARCHIVE.com 1999Bluetooth is Announced 1999The Matrix: Referencing Cyberpunk and Hacker Cultures 1999The First Full Internet Service on Cell Phones in Japan 1999Nigerian Letter Scams Move to the Internet 1999Berners-Lee's Conception of the Semantic Web 1999"The Internet of Things" 1999Foundation of Designboom 1999"The World Wide Web is the only thing I know of whose shortened form takes three times longer to say than what it is short for." June 1, 1999The Napster Sharing Service for MP3 Files is Launched August 1999comScore is Founded November 2, 1999Continuing to Print the British Parliamentary Papers on Vellum November 29, 1999The Anticybersquatting Consumer Protection Act is Enacted December 1999IBM's Blue Gene Project Begins 2000
Third generation Amazon Kindle, showing text from the eBook version of the novel Moby Dick
3,200,000 Books Are In Print in the U.S.
2000The Size of the Internet in 2000 2000
Peter Lyman
In the Year 2000, "How Much Information?"
2000Over 5,000,000 Items in the National Digital Library Program 2000MINERVA to Preserve Open-Access Web Resources 2000
Andrew Hoyem in front of a printing press.
The Last Integrated Typefoundry, Letterpress Printer & Bindery
The front cover of Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace by Lawrence Lessig.
Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace
Jean-Pierre Dupuy
On the Value of the History of Science in Scientific Research
Hairong Li
The "Journal of Interactive Advertising" Begins
A photopolymer printing plate for flexography
Prepress Becomes Digital
2000 – 2007Conceiving and Building a Machine-Readable Database to Present Information "Filtered, Selected and Presented According to the Needs of the Individual User" 2000Stephen King's "Experiment in Alternate Forms of Distribution" 2000A Model of Cortical Processing as an Electronic Circuit of 16 "Neurons" that Could Select and Amplify Input Signals Much Like the Cortex of the Mammalian Brain 2000Conflict and Mediation Event Observations (CAMEO) January 2000
The Pandora logo
Pandora Radio is Founded, Based on the "Music Genome Project"
February 7, 2000
A diagram of a Denial-of-Service Attack.
The First Documented Denial-of-Service Attacks
March 9, 2000 – September 2003
The Bomis.com logo
Predecessor of the Wikipedia: "One of the Greatest Defunct Websites in History"
March 10, 2000
The Netscape logo
Climax of the Dot-Com Bubble
March 14, 2000
An old interface of the Oxford Dictionary Online where users could subscribe to the online dictionary
OED Online
March 14, 2000 – 2010The First Mass-Market E-Book + A Video Interview June 5, 2000 – March 2009eBook Distributor is Acquired by Barnes & Noble June 26, 2000
The Celera logo
The Most Extensive Computation Undertaken in Biology to Date
June 29, 2000
A technician monitors IBM's ASCI White Supercomputer in 2000
The ASCI White Supercomputer Becomes Operational
August 2000IBM Forms a Life Sciences Division September 2000There are 20,000,000 Websites on the Internet. October 23, 2000
Google AdWords logo
Google Launches AdWords
December 14 – December 21, 2000"Weapons of Financial Mass Destruction"? December 21, 2000National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program December 28, 2000Safeguarding Internet Security in China 2001
Lawrence Lessig
The Future of Ideas: The Fate of Commons in a Connected World
Edwin Black
IBM and the Holocaust
Steven Spielberg
The Film: "A. I. Artificial Intelligence"
The KH-4B Corona Reconaissance Satellite
Origins of Google Earth
High Density Rosetta Archival Preservation Technology
2001 – June 7, 2013Mail Isolation Control and Tracking (MICT) 2001Foundation of the Oxford Internet Institute January 2001The Digital Preservation Coalition January 2001A Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System January 15, 2001
The Wikipedia logo
The Wikipedia Begins
February 15 – February 16, 2001
Sequencing machine screen shot
Publication of the Human Genome Sequence
February 21, 2001
Deja.com logo after 1999
Google Acquires Deja.com
March 5, 2001
The Napster logo
An Injunction Against Napter to Prevent Trading of Copyrighted Music
April 2001
Nicholson Baker
Double Fold: Libraries and the Assault on Paper
May 3, 2001
The logo for the Women's National Book Association 
Somewhat Accelerated Prediction of the Future of eBooks
July 2, 2001
Bram Cohen
The BitTorrent Peer-to-Peer File-Sharing Protocol
July 11, 2001
Hironobu Sakaguchi
The First Attempt to Make a Photorealistic Computer Animated 3D Feature Film
August 2001
Michael K. Bergman
Beneath the Surface of the Ocean of Data: "The Deep Web"
September 25, 2001
The Sirius XM radio logo
Satellite Radio Broadcasting Begins
October 1, 2001
The DoCoMo logo
The First 3G Cellular Network
October 23, 2001
The original Apple iPod
Apple Launches the iPod
October 24, 2001"The Wayback Machine" Becomes Operational November 2001
The Council on Library and Information Resources logo
The Problems of Maintaining Physical versus Digital Artifacts in Libraries
November 15, 2001
The original Xbox
Microsoft's Xbox is Launched
November 20, 2001
An image associated with U.S. Patent 6,319,530 depicting what could be printed onto a birthday cake using an inject printer and edible ink.
Printing on Cakes Made Possible
December 2001
The Rhapsody logo
Rhapsody is Launched
Charles Babbage
Babbage's Difference Engine No. 2 and its Printer are Finally Constructed
2002The Size of the Internet in 2002 2002
Jeremy Norman
"Origins of Cyberspace"
2002Over 500,000 Egyptian Papyri Survive 2002
HASTAC is Founded
Steven Spielberg
"Minority Report": The Movie
Paul Marino
Machinima is Founded
Author Hao Qun, known by the pen name Murong Xuecun
Working Around Chinese Censorship of Literary Works
2002Origin of the Google Books Project 2002One Way to Determine the Beginning of the Digital Age January 2002 – 2003The Information Awareness Office May 2002Trusted Digital Repositories: Attributes and Responsibilities September 2002Google News, a Free News Aggregator, Begins October 16, 2002
Bibliotheca Alexandrina exterior
A Modern Analogue to the Greatest Library of the Ancient World
November 2002
Blaise Aguera y Arcas
Computational Analytical Bibliography Makes Typographical Discovery
December 2002
Creative Commons logo
Creative Commons
December 1, 2002
Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics logo
ECHO (European Cultural Heritage Online) is Founded
The University of California Berkeley logo
How Much Information?
Linden Lab logo
"Second Life" is Launched
IRS logo
Customer Account Data Engine
The codex form of a Japanese cell phone novel.
The First Cell Phone Novel
2003859,000 New Book Titles Are Published Worldwide in 2003 2003The First Attempt to "Establish the Geneology of the Computer as an Expressive Medium" in a Single Volume January 2003Regulations.gov is Launched February 23, 2003
UKOLN logo
Collecting and Preserving the World Wide Web
March 2003Latent Dirichlet Allocation March 21 – March 25, 2003Probably the First Live Coverage of an Actual Battle on the Ground Seen on Television April 6 – April 12, 2003
The National Museum of Iraq
Looting of the National Museum of Iraq
April 7 – April 9, 2003
Lotfi Belkhir
The First Automatic Page-Turning Scanner: "Moving Knowledge from Books to Bytes"
April 14, 2003HIPAA: Privacy of Medical Records, Goes into Effect April 28, 2003
The iTunes interface
Apple Opens the iTunes Store
May 2003 – May 2009
Grand Text Auto logo
"Grand Text Auto" A Group Blog
July 2003
The IIPC logo
Netpreserve.org is Founded
August 2003
Brad Greenspan
MySpace is Founded
August 2003
Niklas Zenström
Skype is Founded
October 23, 2003
Gary Wolf
Amazon Introduces "Search Inside" 120,000 Books
November 2003 – 2007
Hiroshi Ishiguro
The Actroid: A Humanoid Robot and Android
November 1, 2003
Umberto Eco
"Vegetal and Mineral Memory: The Future of Books"
December 2003
Michael Hawley
The World's Largest Book --Spectacularly Beautiful
December 10 – December 12, 2003
World Summit on the Information Society logo
The World Summit on the Information Society
December 16, 2003
President George W. Bush, the 43rd president of the United States
The First U.S. Standards for Sending Commercial E-Mail
The OCLC logo
OCLC Serves More than 50,000 Libraries, Contains 56 Million Records
2004800,000,000 People are Using the Internet 2004
The Library of Congress, as seen from the outside
Approximately 530 miles of Bookshelves
20041,200,000 Unique Book Titles are Sold 20042,350,000 U.S. Students in Online Learning 2004
Robert (Bob) Stein
The Institute for the Future of the Book
2004OpenStreetMap Begins 2004 – 2014How Employment in Bookselling and Newspaper and Magazine Publishing in the U.S. Declined Since the "Great Recession" January 6, 2004GarageBand: a Streamlined Digital Audio Workstation February 2004
The Flickr logo
Flickr, the Photo & Video Sharing Social Networking Site, is Launched
February 4, 2004
Mark Zuckerberg
March 2004The National Digital Newspaper Program May 2004There are 50,000,000 Websites on the Internet May 1, 2004
John Shaw Billings
The Index-Catalogue Goes Online
May 12, 2004
An artist's rendition of the Library of Alexandria
The Site of the Original Library of Alexandria is Located
July 6, 2004
An issue of the Journal of Cell Biology
Image Manipulation in Scientific Publications
September 22, 2004
Bram Cohen
BitTorrent is Commercialized
October 2004
The Frankfurt Bookfair logo
The Google Print Project is Announced
October 2004
Chris Anderson
"The Long Tail"
October 2004 – 2005Google Maps Begins October 5 – October 7, 2004
The Web 2.0 Conference logo
The First Web 2.0 Conference Occurs
October 14, 2004
A microscopic picture of a cluster of neurons in the brain
Cortical Rewiring and Information Storage
November 2004
The Pew Internet and American Life Project logo
8,000,000 U.S. Blogs
2005Use of Internet in China in 2005 2005
The National Science Foundation logo
Attempting to Use an Ink-Jet Printer to Print Living Tissue. . . .
The Mitsubishi DIAMONDSTAR 90 press
In 2005, The World's Fastest Newspaper Offset Press
The Parker Library on the Web homepage
Digitizing the Matthew Parker Library Begins
The original Kosmix.com search engine homepage
The cover art for From Gutenberg to the Internet: A Sourcebook on the History of Information Technology by Jeremy Norman
"From Gutenberg to the Internet"
An image of earth using the Google Earth program
Google Earth is Launched
Richard Louv
"Last Child in the Woods" : Exploration of Nature Versus Exposure to Media in Childhood
The FBI seal
NarusInsight Supercomputer Network Monitoring Software
2005Reflections on the Transition from Hot Metal to Digital Typesetting Circa 2005The "Selfie" Social Media Phenomenon February 2005
The YouTube logo
"Broadcast Yourself" : YouTube is Founded
March 17, 2005
The European Library logo
The European Library is Launched
March 31, 2005
The PS1
Sony's Playstation and PS1 Are the First Game Console to Sell 100 Million Units
April 14, 2005
Xiao Qiang
Development and State Control of the Chinese Internet
April 23, 2005
A screen shot from the first video uploaded to YouTube
The First Video is Uploaded to YouTube
May 9, 2005 – February 7, 2011
The Huffington Post homepage
AOL Buys The Huffington Post
May 19, 2005 – April 16, 2006"Brain Age: Train Your Brain in Minutes a Day!," the First Commercial NeuroGame June 2005Reddit is Founded June 6, 2005
The UNESCO logo
Proposal for a World Digital Library
July 7, 2005
The Buncefield Fuel Depot fire, taken 10 minutes after the explosion
The BBC May be the First Mainsteam Industrial Medium to Adopt User-Generated Content
July 14, 2005
Beth Noveck
"Peer to Patent"
August 4 – August 8, 2005
The Wikimedia logo
Wikimania!: The First International Wikimedia Conference Takes Place
August 12, 2005
Gary Urton with some khipu
The First Intelligible Word from an Extinct South American Civilization?
August 25, 2005 – January 11, 2006
A screenshot of the Million Dollar Homepage
The Million Dollar Homepage
August 29, 2005
The LibraryThing homepage
LibraryThing is Founded
September 6, 2005A University Library Intended to Contain Very Few Physical Books September 8, 2005
The Lockheed Martin logo
Electronic Records Archives System
September 15 – September 16, 2005Second International Conference on the Preservation of Digital Objects September 30, 2005
Olaf Sporns
Connectomes: Elements of Connections Forming the Human Brain
October 2005Google Print Morphs in Two October 5, 2005
J.K. Rowling
300,000,000 Printed Copies of Harry Potter
October 5, 2005
The Armed Forces Institute of Pathology logo
The Genetic Code of Avian Flu Virus H5N1 is Deciphered
October 8, 2005
Google CEO Eric Schmidt
It Could Take 300 Years to Index All the World's Information
October 19, 2005
The Electronic Frontier Foundation logo
Decoding Printer Tracking Dots
October 25, 2005
The Open Content Alliance logo
The Open Content Alliance is Founded
November 2, 2005
Wolfgang von Kempelen
The Amazon Mechanical Turk
November 9, 2005
Mitchell Kapor
Massively Distributed Collaboration
November 11, 2005
The World Digital Library homepage
A Plan to Create a World Digital Library
December 2005
The Google Books logo
Google Books
December 2005
The exterior of the British Library
Maybe the World's Largest Physical Library
December 2005
The Heritage Preservation logo
The Heritage Health Index Report on the State of America's Collections
December 14, 2005
A cover of the journal Nature
The Wikipedia is Rated Nearly as Accurate as Encyclopedia Brittanica
December 14, 2005
The Pixar logo
Pixar at MOMA
2006Data Curation as a Profession 2006 – January 19, 2012
The Springer logo
Springer Published 50,000 eBooks
2006The National Endowment for the Humanities "Office of Digital Humanities" Begins 2006A More Efficient Way to Teach Individual Layers of Neurons for Deep Learning January 16, 2006
Gary Kremen
The Highest Price Paid for a Domain Name
January 22, 2006File-Sharing Exceeds Sales of Digital Music Downloads January 24, 2006
The Pixar version of the Disney logo, used in Pixar movies
Disney Acquires Pixar
January 26, 2006
Dirk Brockman
Using Currency Movements to Predict the Spread of Infectious Disease
January 27, 2006Western Union Discontinues Telegram Transmissions January 28, 2006
The iTunes U logo
College-Level Lectures Via Podcasts
January 31, 2006
The Electronic Frontier Foundation logo
Hepting v. AT&T
February 2006
A screenshot of the D-Lib Magazine homepage
A Research Library Based on Historical Collections of the Internet Archive
February 2006
The Canon A530, considered by many to be one of the best digital cameras available in 2006
92% of Cameras Sold are Digital
February 2, 2006
The cover of the 200th issue of Electronic Gaming Monthly
"The Greatest 200 Videogames of Their Time"
February 6 – February 10, 2006
The Department of Homeland Security seal
The "Cyber Storm" War Game
February 8, 2006
The Zillow.com logo
Zillow.com is Launched
February 9, 2006
Professor Alan Smeaton of DCU, who worked on the Google funded research project
Making Handwritten Manuscripts Searchable
February 22, 2006
Steve Jobs speaking about the one billionth iTunes download
Over One Billion iTunes Downloads
March 2006
A screenshot of the ArchiveGrid homepage
Access to Nearly One Million Archive Collection Descriptions
March 2006
The World Wide Web History Center logo
World Wide Web History Center is Founded
March 2006Studies on Digital Library Evolution March 17, 2006
Karen Calhoun
The Changing Nature of the Catalogue. . . .
April 2006
A self-portrait by Leonardo da Vinci in red chalk
Damage to Codex Atlanticus Caused by Efforts at Preservation
April 2006 – May 9, 2009
Judson Laipply
The Most Viewed Video on YouTube as of 2009
April 2006
The Espresso Book Machine
The Espresso "On Demand" Book Machine
April 3, 2006A Critical Review at the Library of Congress April 23, 2006The Biggest Music Retailer in the World: Apple's iTune Store May 14, 2006
Kevin Kelly
"The entire works of humankind, from the beginning of recorded history, in all languages" would amount to 50 petabytes of data.
June 2006
Jeff Howe
The Word Crowdsourcing is Coined
June 2006
John Chambers
Like Teleporting in Star Trek
June 20, 2006
S. Blair Hedges
The "Print Clock" Method for Dating Printing
July 1, 2006
The OCLC logo
OCLC Merges with RLG
July 13, 2006 – September 30, 2010
The Rice University Press logo
Reborn Digital: The First Fully Digital University Press: A 3 Year Experiment in the United States
July 30 – August 3, 2006Molecular Animation August 2006
The Google Apps logo, including a diagram of some of the applications offered
Google Apps are Introduced
August 9, 2006
The Myspace login page layout from 2006
100,000,000 Users Within Three Years
September 2006
The cover of Le Document a la Lumiere du Numerique
"The Document in the Digital Era" by Web-Footed
Circa September – October 2006
The Sony Reader PRS-500
The Sony Reader PRS-500 is Introduced
September 14, 2006Nature Announces Peer to Peer Review September 26, 2006
The IBM logo
Publishing Patent Filings on the Web
October 2006
The Twitter logo
Twitter: "What Are You Doing?"
October 2006
Will it Blend?: Viral Marketing
October 29, 2006
The entrance to the Royal Society of London
The Royal Society Digital Journal Archive
November 1, 2006
The Netcraft logo
More than 100,000,000 Websites
November 6, 2006
Tom Phillips, head of print operations at Google
Google's AdWords to Place Ads in Print Newspapers
November 6, 2006
Youtube co-founders Chad Hurley and Steve Chen
Google Buys YouTube
November 20, 2006
Terry T. Semel, left, the Chief of Yahoo at the time. Dean Singleton, right, the chief of MediaNews.
Newspaper Advertising in Partnership with Yahoo
November 20, 2006
The Environmental Protection Agency seal
The EPA Begins to Close its Scientific Libraries
November 26, 2006
Ailin Graef
"Anshe Chung Becomes First Virtual World Millionaire"
November 30, 2006
Stephen Johnson
Demanding that the U.S. EPA Desist from Destroying its Libraries
Circa December 2006U.S. Publishers Sell 3.1 Billion Books December 2006
Julian Assange
"An Uncensorable System for Mass Document Leaking"
December 5, 2006
The Reuters logo
Yahoo and Reuters Found "YouWitnessNews"
December 16, 2006
The cover of Time Magazine when the magazine named
Journalistic Acknowledgment of the Significance of Social Networking on the Internet
December 31, 2006
Julian Assange
Wikileaks Manifesto
The cover art of Preserving Digital Information by Henry M. Gladney
A Printed Book on Preserving Digital Information
The Universal Digital Library announces that it surpassed its original goal of one million books
The Universal Digital Library has Scanned over 1,000,000 Books
The Gutenberg Bible
More than 4.7 Billion Bibles Were Been Printed Between 1455 and 2007
2007No More than 10,000,000 Unique Editions before 1900 2007
The Book Industry Study Group logo
Sales of Books in America in 2007
Robert Darnton
976,000 New Book Titles Published in 2007
David Ferrucci
IBM Begins Development of Watson, the First Cognitive Computer
2007The Robot Operating System ROS January 2007Goodreads is Founded January 1, 2007
Post- och Inrikes Tidningarno.15, 9 April 1645
The Oldest Continuously Published Newspaper Moves to the Web
January 4, 2007
The Deskstar 7k1000, the first 1-terabyte hard disk drive sold by Hitachi Global Storage Technologies
The First One Terabyte Hard Disk Drive
February 2007
Kevin Kelly
Information is Expanding 10X Faster than Any Product on this Planet
February 2007
The February 2007 issue of Wired
Is the Universe Made of Information?
February 2007
The Pew Internet and American Life Project logo
In 2007 There Were 12,000,000 U.S. Blogs
February 11, 2007
Barack Obama, the 44th president of the United States
February 27, 2007
The Keio University crest
Data-Storing Bacteria Could Last Thousands of Years
March 2007
Blaise Agüera y Arcas
Photosynth Demonstrated
March 10, 2007
Bookshelves inside the Library of Congress
It Could Take 1800 Years to Convert the Paper Records . . . .
April 29, 2007
Jonathan Shaeffer with a checkers board after
Checkers is "Solved"
May 25, 2007 – May 12, 2008
Google Street View image of St Johns Street in Manchester UK showing 8 different possible views
Google Introduces Street View in Google Maps
May 30, 2007
Carl Bildt
The First Embassy of a Real Country in a Virtual World
May 31, 2007
James D. Watson
Watson's Genome is Sequenced
June 29, 2007
The iPhone 3G
Steve Jobs Introduces the iPhone
July 2007
A virtual classroom in Second Life where players can learn new languages, among other studies
Second Life is Used for Teaching Foreign Languages
July 23 – November 28, 2007The CNN/ YouTube Presidential Debates: The First Internet to Television Debate Partnership August 2007
Arun Kumar
The World Wide Telecom Web for Illiterate Populations
September 2007
A player's avatar stands infront of the virtual campus of Coventry University in Second Life
The First Healthcare Course Taught in Second Life
September 11, 2007 – June 6, 2013
A BoundlessInformant global heat map of data collection. The color scheme ranges from green (areas least subjected to surveillance) through yellow and orange to red (areas most subjected to surveilance).
The PRISM Surveillance Program
September 27, 2007
The National Archives in London
DROID, an Archives Analysis and Identification Tool
November 2007
A cover of Watchtower
28,578,000 Copies Printed Semi-Monthly
November 2007
Jeff W. Lichtman
Brainbow: A Colorful Technique to Visualize Brain Circuitry
November 5, 2007 – 2008
Anthony Grafton
Anthony Grafton's "Codex in Crisis"
November 19, 2007
The Amazon logo
The Amazon Kindle is Introduced
November 19, 2007Kindle Direct Publishing Introduced 2008Drama in the Context of a Telephone Exchange (1928) 2008The Bayerische Staatsbibliothek in "Second Life" 2008ImageNet, an Image Database and Ontology 2008The SyNAPSE Neuromorphic Machine Technology Project Begins 2008 – 2013Using Remote Presence Telemedicine Robots in Medicine 2008 – November 18, 2013The First Virtual Currency Has a Real Value of 7 Billion Dollars February 19, 2008The World's Oldest Oil Paintings Restored After Taliban Dynamite March 2008Game-Based Learning for Virtual Patients March 3, 2008Statistical Analysis Correctly Forecasts the Election of Obama March 10 – March 14, 2008Cyber Storm II May 2008About 200 Million People in the U.S. Have Broadband Connections June 2008Encyclopedia Brittanica Will Include Wiki-Style Collaboration June 28, 2008The Effect of Decay Fungi on Wood Used in the Production of Violins June 30, 200821.9% of the World's People Use the Internet July 2008Over One Trillion Unique URLs Indexed July 10, 2008Opening of the iTunes App Store: the First App Distribution Service July 27, 2008Toward a World Digital Mathematics Library July 29, 2008Sirus XM Satellite Radio is Formed August 5, 2008 – March 26, 2010"Computer Criminal Number One" September 2008181,277,835 Active Websites September 2008Craiglist Becomes the Leading Classified Advertising Service Worldwide September 23, 2008The First Android Phone is Introduced September 30, 2008Viewing the Illustrations of a Journal Article in Three Dimensions October 2008 – March 2012The Largest Atlas Ever Published as a Printed Book October 2008 – March 2012Creation of the HathiTrust Digital Library October 20, 2008The Obama-Biden Campaign Launches Facebook Connect Integration on My.BarackObama.com October 24, 2008Old Wine in New Bottles? October 27, 2008An Encyclopedia with More than Ten Million Articles October 28, 2008The First National Newspaper to Shift From a Daily Print Format to an Online Publication October 28, 2008Authors, Publishers and Google Reach "Landmark Settlement" October 30, 2008Raphael's Madonna of the Goldfinch Restored 450 Years after it was Nearly Destroyed November 4, 2008An Election Reported Interactively in Real Time November 4, 2008CNN Introduces "Hologram-Like" Images in Coverage of the 2008 Presidential Election November 5, 2008Change.gov is Founded November 5, 2008Year After Year People Will Share Twice as Much Information November 6, 2008Discovery of a Set of Mutations that Might Have Caused a Cancer November 11, 2008Analysis of Web Search Queries Track the Spread of Flu Faster than Traditional Surveillance Methods November 13, 2008First Images of Extra-Solar Planets Taken from the Visible Spectrum: Planets Located 130 Light-Years from Earth November 18, 2008
Cover of Tango with Cows, Vasily Kamensky.  Please click on image to view larger image.
"Tango with Cows" : A Virtual Exhibition
November 19, 2008PC Magazine Becomes an Online-Only Publication November 20, 2008Europeana, the European Digital Library, Museum and Archive is Launched November 21, 2008"From Book Fluency to Screen Fluency, from Literacy to Visuality" November 25, 2008Downloads Trump CDs December 2, 2008Over 5,000,000 Articles Posted on the HighWire Press e-Publishing Platform. December 2, 2008Probably the Most Expensive Single Volume Printed Edition Ever Published December 8, 2008"Securing Cyberspace for the 44th Presidency" December 8, 2008Pulitzer Prizes Will be Awarded for Online Journalism December 15, 2008The First Reported Case of ZZZ-Mailing 2009"The Future of Learning Institutions in a Digital Age" 2009"Readability" is Launched 2009U.S. Households Received and Sent 176 Billion Pieces of Physical Mail in 2009 2009 – 2010The First iPhone and iPad Apps for the Visually Impaired Circa 2009 – 2013Social TV Begins: Rebuilding TV Audiences Through Social Networks January 6, 2009Apple Eliminates Anticopying Restrictions from iTunes January 14, 2009In 2008 China Becomes the Top User of the Internet January 28, 2009The BBC Intends to Place 200,000 Oil Paintings on the Internet February 2009BitTorrent was Responsible for 27-55% of All Internet Traffic February 2, 2009Google Earth Incorporates Historical Imagery February 12, 2009"Google and the Future of Books" February 28, 2009Discovery of a Previously Unknown Self- Portrait of Leonardo March 3, 2009The Largest Municipal Archive in Germany Collapses During Underground Construction March 11, 2009A Higher Resolution Map of Knowledge Than Can be Produced from Citation Analysis March 17, 2009The Largest U.S. Newspaper to Become an Internet-Only News Source April 1, 2009"Computers vs. Brains" April 3, 2009Using Automation to Find "Fundamental Laws of Nature" April 3, 2009Robot Scientist becomes the First Machine to Discover New Scientific Knowledge April 7, 2009Australia to Build National Fiber Optic 100 Megabit Network April 15, 2009The First Collaborative Online Orchestra April 21, 2009The World Digital Library Launches April 22, 2009The TV Show "Jeopardy" Provides a Good Model of the Semantic Analysis and Integration Problem April 27, 2009IBM's Watson Question Answering System Challenges Humans at "Jeopardy" April 28, 2009Kickstarter.com is Launched April 30, 2009Using YouTube Videos to Study the Origins of Music in Societies May 3, 2009Using Air Traffic and Currency Tracking Data in Epidemiology May 5, 2009Increasing Sales of Digital Books (eBooks) May 6, 2009Larger Version of the Amazon Kindle Introduced May 16, 2009Wolfram/Alpha is Launched May 19, 2009"Green Dam Youth Escort" May 21, 2009Changing the Advertising Model for General News Reporting May 31, 2009Google Will Sell eBooks June 1, 2009The WARC Format as an International File Preservation Standard June 1, 2009The First Magazine Cover Created as iPhone Art June 4, 2009Costs of Managed Archiving versus Passive Archiving of Data June 9, 2009"Revenue at Craigslist is Said to Top $100,000,000" as Classified Advertising in Newspapers Declines June 12, 2009The U.S. Converts from Analog to Digital TV Broadcasting June 13, 2009Piracy of Internet Filtering Software? June 14, 2009Employment in the Field of Simulation June 23, 2009"The Web Pries Lid off Iranian Censorship" June 25, 2009The Death of Michael Jackson Impacts the Internet July 2009The Human Connectome Project July 6, 2009Virtual Reunification of the Codex Sinaiticus July 16, 2009Amazon Sends Orwell eBooks Down the "Memory Hole" July 22, 2009USA Today Adds eBook Sales to its Bestsellers List August 2009The Overlap of Innovation and Tradition in the 15th Century Media Revolution August 9, 2009"What's a Big City Without a Newspaper?" August 10, 2009The Cost of DeCoding a Human Genome Drops to $50,000 August 25, 2009Displaying Crowdsourced Road Congestion Data on Google Maps August 28, 2009Imaging a Molecule One Million Times Smaller Than a Grain of Sand September 2009Confirmation that Fungally-Treated Wood Enables Great Violin Sound September 1, 2009The First College Journalism Course Focused on Twitter September 2, 2009An Algorithm to Decipher Ancient Texts September 14, 2009Darnton's Case for Books: Past, Present and Future September 17, 2009'Material Degradomics" or, The Sniff Test for a Book's Physical State September 30, 20091.7 Billion Internet Users October 2009The First Historical Thesaurus in Any Language October 3, 2009Google CEO Eric Schmidt On Newspapers & Journalism October 7, 2009eBook Sales Represent 1.6% of Book Sales October 9, 2009" A Library to Last Forever" ?? October 13, 2009Discovery of Unknown Portrait by Leonardo Confirmed by a Fingerprint October 13, 2009The Finest Roman Cameo Glass Vase Discovered October 19, 2009The Largest Study of Global Internet Traffic Since the Beginning of the Commercial Internet October 19, 2009Google Represents 6% of All Internet Traffic October 22, 2009David Hockney's iPhone Art October 30, 2009ICANN Will Allow Web Addresses in Non-Latin Alphabets November 13, 2009A "Significant Amount" of Water is Discovered on the Moon November 26 – November 26, 2009U.S. National Text Pager Intercepts from 9/11 Are Released December 2009Convergence of Media: Packaging Blu-ray Discs in Books December 2009 – January 12, 2010Google's Computers in China Come Under Attack, Initiating a Review of the Company's Operations in China December 2009Google Announces Real-Time Search: "News at it Happens" December 8, 2009The Google Living Stories Project Begins December 8, 2009Google Introduces Google Goggles December 10, 2009The Film "Avatar" and Visions of Reality, Virtual and Otherwise December 17, 2009A French Alternative to Google Books is Formed December 23, 2009The Amazon Kindle is Hacked; eBook Digital Rights Management Cracked December 27, 2009eBooks Begin to Outsell Physical Books; 1.49 Million Kindles Sold? 2010"Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know" 2010"Cartographies of Time: A History of the Timeline" January 2010Biological Journals to Require Data-Archiving January 2010"The Never-Ending Language Learning System" January 4, 2010"Whatever Happened to Second Life?" January 9, 2010"The World's First Full-Size Robotic Girlfriend" January 13, 2010After the Earthquake in Haiti, Donating by SMS Text January 14, 2010World Texting Competition is Won by Koreans January 15, 2010Exploit Code for Attacks on Google Released on the Internet January 27, 2010Steve Jobs Introduces the iPad, the First Widely Sold Tablet Computer February 2010"Assessing the Future Landscape of Scholarly Communication. . . " February 2010Liberté ou la Mort: Julia Gaffield Discovers Haiti's Declaration of Independence February 1, 2010Social Media Interviews the President February 22, 2010Modifiable eBook Editions of Textbooks February 22, 2010The First Superman Comic Book sells for $1,000,000. March 2010The Sociology of Wikipedians March 2 – March 6, 2010The First Brain-Computer Interface Product Offered for Sale March 22, 2010Google Pulls its Search Engine Out of Mainland China March 24, 2010The Vatican Library Plans the Scanning of all its Manuscripts into the FITS Document Format March 29, 2010The Holy Grail of Holy Grails, Comicbook-wise April 5, 2010Probably the First Fully Visually Satisfying Interactive eBook April 7, 2010U.S. Book Sales in 2009: $23.9 Billion April 12, 2010The First Pulitizer Prizes for Internet Journalism April 14, 2010Google Announces "Replay" for Twitter April 14, 2010The Library of Congress Will Preserve All "Tweets" April 20, 2010"The Data-Driven Life" April 27 – June 10, 2010Google Acknowledges that it Collected Wi-Fi Information Along with Cartographic and Imaging Information April 30, 2010Using the Twitter Archive for Historical Research May 6, 2010General Statistics on the U.S. Book Publishing Industry May 6, 2010Google Introduces a Translation Feature for Google Goggles May 6, 2010The First Internet Addresses in Non-Latin Characters May 12 – August 22, 2010The Most Successful Art Forger Ever May 13, 2010Cell Phones Are Now Used More for Data than Speech June 2010Social Networking Added to Reading Electronic Books June 2010The First Malware to Spy on and Subvert Industrial Systems June 2, 2010Social Networks Take a Machiavellian Approach to Privacy July 2010Flipboard, "Your Personalized, Social Magazine" July 2010 – June 2011Spam Declines from 90% of Email Traffic to Only 72.9% July 5, 2010"The First Image of the Entire Universe" July 8, 2010Stanford's New Engineering Library Houses Few Physical Books July 19, 2010For the First Time E-books Outsell Digital Books on Amazon.com July 26, 2010The First Traditional Humanities Journal to Try "Open" Peer Review July 29, 2010Wikileaks Installs an "Insurance File" August 1, 2010Data on Mobile Networks is Doubling Each Year August 4, 2010"Every Two Days We Create as Much Information as We Did up to 2003" August 5, 2010Google Calculates That There are "129,864,880" Different Books in the World August 5, 2010The 2010 Social Networking "World Map" September 8, 2010Google Introduces "Google Instant" September 8, 2010eBook Edition Released Prior to Hardcover Edition September 15, 2010The First Recording of Ancient Asian Melodies September 19, 2010Possibly the First Academic Library with No Physical Books October 2010NCBI Introduces Images, a Database of More than 2.5 Million Images in Biomedical Literature October 2010 – December 17, 2012Instagram is Founded October 1, 2010"The Social Network": The Origins of Facebook October 14, 2010 – April 2013Google Books Scanned More than 15 Million Books in 6 Years and More than 30 Million in 9 Years October 15, 2010The First Fragment of Contemporary Classical Music Composed by a Computer in its Own Style October 19, 2010Columbia University Opens the Tow Center for Digital Journalism October 27, 2010Paperbecause.com Makes the Case for Using Paper October 29, 20103G Wireless Telephony in Mt. Everest Region of Nepal November 20108,900,000 Robots are Operating World Wide November 2010 – June 2012The First MRI Video of Childbirth November 4, 2010Kinect for Xbox is Introduced November 9, 2010Towards a New Digital Legal Information Environment November 23, 2010 – October 22, 2014Apple 1 Computers Sell for $210,000 in 2010, for $671,400 in 2013, for $905,000 and $365,000 in 2014 November 23, 2010 – September 1, 2011$1,300,000,000 Verdict in Software Copyright Infringement Suit Partially Vacated November 28 – December 8, 2010The Wikileaks U. S. Diplomatic Cables Leak November 30, 2010Google Earth 6: Enhanced 3D, 3D Trees, Enhanced Historical Imagery December 2010Introduction of the Google Ngram Viewer December 2, 2010The Google Earth Engine December 3, 2010Of the Seventy Online Databases that "Define Our Planet", Many are Known Only to Specialists December 6, 2010The Google eBookstore Opens December 8, 2010The Website of MasterCard is Hacked by Wikileaks Supporters December 9, 2010Bestsellers on eBook Readers: Romance Novels December 11, 2010U.S. E-Book Sales are Predicted to Reach $1,000,000,000 in 2010 December 13, 2010The Digital Public Library of America December 16, 2010The Cultural Observatory at Harvard Introduces Culturomics December 16, 20103D Maps for Android Mobil Devices December 16, 2010An Interactive Pop-Up Children's Book App for the iPhone & iPad December 23, 2010eBooks Represent 9-10% of Trade-Book Sales December 27, 2010Founder of Wikileaks to Publish his Autobiography December 29, 2010Facebook is the Most Searched for and Most Visited Website in America 2011Scanning Books in Libraries Instead of Making Photocopies 2011Post-Review Process Rather than Pre-Review Process in Publishing? 2011Google's Track of its Own Development 2011"Visual Complexity: Mapping Patterns of Information" 2011 – 2013An App the Promotes the Value of Impermanence 2011Apple Color Emoji: The First Color Font Included in a Computer Operating System 2011Ethical principles for Designers, Builders and Users of Robots 2011 – 2013Anonymous Scottish Book Sculptures 2011The Universal Short Title Catalogue is Founded 2011Can an Artificial Intelligence Get into the University of Tokyo? January 2011The Smartphone Becomes the CPU of the Laptop January 2011The First Independently Published Magazine Exclusively for the iPad January 10, 2011Universal Music Group Donates a "Mile of Music" to the Library of Congress January 12, 2011Voice-Activated Translation on Cell Phones January 13, 2011Probably the Largest Digital Image January 15, 2011The Wikipedia Celebrates its Tenth Anniversary January 22, 2011More than Ten Billion Apps are Downloaded from the Apple App Store January 28, 2011Publishing Non-Fiction Exclusively for Cell Phones, eBook Readers and Tablet Computers January 31, 2011The New York Times Begins its "Recommendations Service" February 2011Confession: A Roman Catholic iPhone App February 201142.3% of the U.S. Population Uses Facebook February 1, 2011The Google Art Project February 3, 20114.3 Billion IP Addresses Have Been Allocated February 10, 2011Worldwide Technological Capacity to Store, Communicate, and Compute Information February 11, 2011The New York Times Begins Ranking eBook Best Sellers February 14 – February 16, 2011IBM's Watson Question Answering System Defeats Humans at Jeopardy! February 16 – September 18, 2011Borders Files Chapter 11 Bankruptcy & Closes the Last of its Bookstores February 17, 2011Two Billion People Now Use the Internet Regularly February 17, 2011The U. S. National Broadband Map February 25, 2011The Second Best-Selling Book in America Priced Like an App (99 Cents) February 25, 2011Four Phases of Government Internet Surveillance and Censorship to Date March 2011The Environmental Impacts of eBooks and eBook Readers March 2011 – November 2012A 3D Printer Kit for only $499 March 2011Koomey’s Law of Electrical Efficiency in Computing March 2011 – March 2013An Interactive Map of the Internet Later Produced as an iPhone App March 2, 2011In its First Year Apple's iBookstore Sold 100,000,000 Books March 4, 2011The Impact of Automation on Legal Research March 6, 2011The Impact of Artificial Intelligence and Automation on Jobs March 29, 2011The Largest Interior Image: The Strahov Monastery Library April 2011A Program for Signing and Inscribing Ebooks April 18, 2011Walmart Buys Kosmix.com, Forming @WalmartLabs April 20, 2011Amazon to Launch Library Lending for eBooks on the Kindle Platform May 2011Microsoft Acquires Skype for $8.5 Billion May 2011In May 2011 Netflix was the Largest Source of Internet Traffic in North America May 2011The Saint John's Bible is Completed May 2011McKinsey Report on the Impact of the Internet on Growth, Jobs, and Prosperity May 9, 2011The First Major Print Magazine Publisher to Offer iPad Subscriptions May 16, 2011The First Large Robotized Library May 18, 2011"Print isn't dead, says Bowker's Annual Book Production Report May 19, 2011Ebooks Outsell Physical Books on Amazon.com June 2011"Turn on, Tune in, Drop Out": The New York Public Library Buys the Timothy Leary Papers June 2011The Expanding Digital Universe: Surpassing 1.8 Zetabytes June 2011FaceBook Serves a Trillion Page Views in June 2011 June 6, 2011"Physical Archiving is Still an Important Function in the Digital Era."The Internet Archive Builds an Archive of Physical Books June 6, 2011College Textbooks Make a Slower Transition from Print to Digital June 10, 2011Digital Democracy is Not So Democratic June 24, 2011"Distant Reading" Versus "Close Reading" June 29, 2011News Corporation Sells MySpace for $545 Million Loss June 30, 2011IBM Announces Phase-Change Memory June 30, 2011200 Million Tweets Per Day: 100 Fold Increase Since 2009 July 2011South Korea to Shift All Primary and High School Textbooks to Digital by 2015 July 2011Construction of the Francis Crick Institute Begins July 7 – July 17, 2011Leading British Tabloid Closed Because of Cell Phone Hacking Scandal July 14, 2011How Search Engines Have Become a Primary Form of External or Transactive Memory August 2011Consumer Reports Begins Generating More Revenue from Digital Subscriptions than from Print August 2011The First Neurosynaptic Chips August 1, 2011Non-Traditional Book Publishing on the Internet is 8X the Output of Traditional Book Publishing August 11, 2011The Methodists' Handwritten Bible August 15, 2011 – January 2014Google Acquires Smart-Phone Maker Motorola Mobility; Sells its Hardware Division in January 2014 August 15, 2011Free Online Artificial Intelligence Course Attracts 58,000 Students August 18, 2011Interactive Reading and Spelling on the iPad August 18, 2011Toward Cognitive Computing Systems September 2011 – July 2, 2012The First Complete Album Composed Solely by Computer and Recorded by Human Musicians September 2011Snapchat: Communication and Automatic Destruction of Information September 6, 2011Michael Hart, Father of eBooks & Founder of Project Gutenberg, Dies September 12, 2011The First Commercial Application of the IBM Watson Question Answering System: Medical Diagnostics September 28 – November 14, 2011Amazon Introduces the Kindle Fire October 5, 2011Steve Jobs Dies October 18, 2011What Would an Infinite Digital Bookcase Look Like? October 25, 2011"Zero to Eight: Children's Media Use in America" October 28, 2011Room to Read Donates its 10,000,000th Book November 2011Texting During the Climb up El Capitan in Yosemite November 2011A Silicon Chip that Mimics How the Brain's Synapses Change in Response to New Information November 11 – November 30, 2011Action Comics #1 Superman sells for $2.16 Million November 14, 2011The Swedish Twitter University Begins November 20, 2011Digital Books Represent 25% of Sales of Some Categories of Books but Less than 5% of Childrens' Books November 23, 2011Rapid Growth of the Digital Textbook Market in the U.S. November 29, 2011Google Maps 6.0 for Android Introduces Indoor Maps and a "My Location" Feature November 30, 2011The Cost of Sequencing a Human Genome Drops to $10,500 November 30, 2011Signalling the Shift from Print to Digital and to More Accurate Metrics of the Effectiveness of Advertising December 2011The First Widely Accepted Index of the Talmud December 2011Amazon.com Sold More Than 4 Million Kindles in December 2011 December 1, 2011Statistics on European and U.S. eBook Sales December 6, 2011More than 10 Billion Android Apps Downloaded December 8, 2011100 Million Words Translated per Week by Google Translate December 16, 2011IBM's Watson Question Answering System to Team with Cedars-Sinai Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute December 17, 2011Burning of the Library of l'Institut de l'Egypte December 20, 2011More than One Trillion Videos Were Played Back on YouTube in 2011 December 20, 2011Sheikh Sultan Dr. Al-Qasimi Pledges to Restore the Library of l'Institut de l'Egypte 2012The Anatomy of an Internet Attack by "Anonymous" 2012Surprisingly Active 21st Century Trade in Medieval Manuscript Books of Hours January 201242,182,000 Copies Printed Semi-Monthly in 194 Languages January 2012Gelatin and Calcium in the Earliest Paper Was Responsible for its Longevity January 2012NYPL Labs Introduces the Stereogranimator January 5, 2012Sales of eBook Readers in 2011 January 10, 2012Transforming Google into a Search Engine that Understands Not Only Content but People and Relationships January 10, 2012The Cost of Sequencing a Human Genome Drops to $1000 January 13, 2012The Smallest Magnetic Data Storage Unit Uses Just 12 Atoms per Bit January 17, 2012Slides of Fossils Collected by Darwin on the Beagle are Rediscovered January 17, 2012Major Websites Go Dark to Protest Web Censorship Legislation January 19, 2012Apple Introduces iBooks 2, iBooks Author, and iTunes U January 23, 2012Discovery of the Afghan Genizah January 23, 2012 – January 13, 2013Technological Unemployment: Are Robots Replacing Workers? February 8, 2012Creative Destruction of the Book Trade by Amazon? March 2012The ILAB Launches a Mobil App March 9, 2012After Digitizing Over 20 Million Books Expansion of the Google Books Project Begins to Slow March 14, 2012The Encyclopedia Britannica Ends Print Publication March 29, 2012Nearly 50% of U.S. Mobile Subscribers Own Smartphones April 12, 2012U.S. Justice Department Sues Major Publishers Over the Pricing of eBooks; Amazon Wins April 16, 2012The First Pulitzer Prize Awarded to an Internet-Only Publication April 17, 2012Improving the Research Potential of ESTC April 18, 2012"Companies that have existed for centuries could be gone in a generation unless they make a single radical change." April 19, 2012Massive Thefts from the Girolamini Library in Naples; Auction Aborted April 23, 2012Using a Densitometer to Measure Usage of Medieval Books of Hours April 26, 2012During Testimony over a Phone Hacking Scandal Rupert Murdoch Predicts the End of Print News Media April 30, 2012Microsoft Invests in Barnes & Noble's Nook eBook Reader Division April 30, 2012What Makes Spoken Lines in Movies Memorable? May 2012 – March 31, 2016Digitizing the Oldest Monastic Library & The Oldest Continuously Operating Library May 2, 2012Harvard & M.I.T. to Offer Free Online Courses May 7, 2012The First Annual Report Issued by a Museum in an eBook Format May 12, 2012How eBooks Are Changing Fiction Writing and Publishing May 16, 2012The First Functioning Brain-Computer Interface for Quadriplegics May 16, 2012Google Introduces the Knowledge Graph May 28, 2012Flame: A Virus that Collects Information May 29, 2012Growing Adoption of the eBook Format in the U. S. June 26, 2012A Large Scale Neural Network Appears to Emulate Activity in the Visual Cortex August 16, 2012The First Book Stored in DNA and then Read September 3, 2012The Book History Online Database, Previously a Free Service, Becomes an Expensive Private Research Source September 6, 2012The Human Genome is Packed with At Least 4,000,000 Gene Switches September 25, 2012The World's Smallest Book Requires a Scanning Electron Microscope to be Seen October 2012A 3D Virtual Reality Reader for eBooks October 2012Online Advertising is Expected to Surpass Print Advertising, But TV Advertising Dwarfs Both October 2012The First 3D Printshow Takes Place in London October 4, 2012Book Mountain + Library Quarter in Spijkenisse, The Netherlands October 23, 20122.5 Quintillion Bytes of Data Each Day October 24, 2012Jason Pontin Argues that "New Technologies of Composition, Not New Media, Inspire Innovations in Literary Styles and Forms" October 26, 2012Windows 8, With Touch Screen Features, is Released October 29, 2012Penguin to Merge with Random House October 29, 2012$2.6 Billion Spent on Ads on Phones and Tablets in 2012 November 2012A Max Planck Institute Program for Historicizing Big Data November 2012A Natural History of Data November 4, 2012Google Has 67% of the U.S. Search Market and Collects 75% of U.S. Search Ad Dollars November 5, 2012eBooks Accounted for 22% of All Book Spending in Second Quarter of 2012 November 8, 2012The First Teleportation from One Macroscopic Object to Another November 12, 2012 – August 9, 2013The First 3D Photo Booth Prints Personal Miniature Figures November 19, 2012Penguin Books Introduces a New eBook Lending Program November 19, 2012Memcomputing Outlined November 20, 2012Coursera Enrolls Nearly Two Million Students from 196 Countries in Online Courses within its First Year November 20, 2012The CEO of Barnes & Noble No Longer Reads Physical Books November 29 – December 1, 2012"Anonymous" Plans to Shut Down Syrian Government Websites in Response to Countrywide Internet Blackout November 29, 2012U.S. Bill to Stengthen Privacy Protection for Emails December 2012100% of U.S. Public Libraries Now Offer Public Access to the Internet December 2012Silvia Hartmann's Novel, "Dragon Lords," Cloud-Sourced with 13,000 Collaborators December 12, 2012@Pontifex Sends First Tweet December 12, 2012
Screen shot from first video to hit one billion views on youtube.com
The First YouTube Video to Reach a Billion Views
December 17, 2012eBook Reading Jumps; Print Book Reading Declines December 19, 2012"How the antiquarian book market has evolved for life on the web" December 19, 2012After Cell Phones With Cameras, Android Cameras- Without Cellphones- are Introduced December 22, 2012"The Life of Pi": Computer Graphic Animation Indistinguishable from Nature December 27, 2012With the Decline of Brick & Mortar Bookstores Public Libraries are Becoming More Commercial December 27, 2012The Secret Race to Save Manuscripts in Timbuktu and Djenne December 28, 2012"Libraries Have Shifted from Warehouses of Books & Materials to Become Participatory Sites of Culture and Learning" December 30, 2012The Year In Graphics and Interactives from The New York Times 2013Google Converts Language Translation into a Problem of Vector Space Mathematics 2013An Infographic About Tatooing in the Form of an Elaborate Tatoo 2013
Possibly the worlds smallest book: Shiki no Kusabana (Flowers of Seasons).
The 2013 Contender for the World's Smallest Printed Book
2013Criticism of Julian Assange and Wikileaks as Reflected in the Film, "The Fifth Estate" January 2013"Born Digital: Guidance for Donors, Dealers, and Archival Repositories" January 4, 2013The Library of Congress Has Archived 170 Billion Tweets January 7, 2013Titian's Portrait of Girolamo Fracastoro is Rediscovered January 11, 2013"Information Technology Dividends Outpace All Others" January 14, 2013The First Use of Quantum Dots in a Mass Produced Consumer Electronics Product--Sony TVs January 14 – September 14, 2013The Bexar County, Texas BiblioTech: a Library Devoid of Physical Books January 17, 2013The Youngest Person to Create a Mobil Game App January 20, 2013Online Reviews Used as Attack Weapons to Kill Sales of a Book January 21, 2013An Innovative Interactive Museum Gallery Space with the Largest Multi-Touch Screen in the United States January 22, 2013The Pew Internet Report on Library Services in the Digital Age January 26, 2013Jane Austin and Walter Scott Were the Two Most Influential Novelists of the 19th Century: A Discovery Made Through Digital Humanities Research January 26, 2013The FDA Approves the First Medical Robot for Hospital Use January 28 – January 30, 2013Part of Library of the Ahmed Baba Institute in Timbuktu is Burned January 28, 2013"The Human Brain Project" is Launched, with the Goal of Creating a Supercomputer-Based Simulation of the Human Brain February 2013Making the iPhone 5 Look and Feel Like a Traditional Camera: the gizmon iCa case February 2013The First 3D Printing Pen; Drawing Enters the Third Dimension February 14, 2013Selling Off Print Media to Allow Fast-Growing Film & Television Assets to Grow Unencumbered by Legacy Print Businesses February 20, 2013"Billboard" Starts to Include YouTube Streams in its Calculation of the Most Popular Songs of the Week February 21, 2013Nielsen to Measure Television Viewing on Internet and Mobile Devices February 23, 2013Drone Pilots Experience Stress Possibly Greater than Actual Combat Pilots February 28, 2013PBS Digital Studios: Will 3D Printing Change the World? March 4, 2013Smartphone Interactive Reading Device Will Track Eyes to Scroll Pages March 7, 2013The Historic Vatican Library to be Digitized in 2.8 Petabytes March 13, 2013Time Warner Spins off its Print Media Division, Time Inc. March 28, 2013eBooks Represented 22.55% of U.S. New Book Sales in 2012 April 11, 2013"The Reading Brain in the Digital Age: The Science of Paper versus Screens" April 15, 2013Google Introduces "Google Glass" Explorer Edition April 18, 2013The Digital Public Library of America is Launched April 25, 2013How the "The Brazen Bibliophiles of Tumbuktu" Saved Manuscripts from Terrorists April 30, 2013On the Twentieth Anniversary CERN Restores the First Website April 30, 2013
Screen shot from world's smallest movie:
The World's Smallest Movie
May 2013Flash Marketing of E-Books May 2013Using 100 Linked Computers and Artificial Intelligence to Re-Assemble Fragments from the Cairo Genizah May 1, 2013The First 3D Printed Bionic Organ: An Ear May 1 – May 2, 2013The First NeuroGaming Conference Takes Place May 15, 2013E-Books Account for About 20% of Trade Book Sales June 2013The Size of the Digital Universe in 2013 and Prediction of its Growth Rate June 2013The NSA Mines Metadata Rather than the Content of Telecommunication June 13, 2013Launching of "Founders Online" June 13, 2013The U.S. Supreme Court Rules that Genes Cannot be Patented July 5, 2013Amazon Sells More than 25% of New Books in the U.S. July 8, 2013The History of Typography in Stop-Motion Animation July 10, 2013Apple Illegally Conspired to With Publishers to Try to Raise the Prices of eBooks July 10, 2013Rare Comic Books Unwittingly Destroyed to Make Papier Mache Sculpture July 17, 2013The First Fully Online MIDS Degree Program July 19, 2013Sixty Percent of Book Sales, Print & Digital, Now Occur Online August 2013Crossbar Memory can Store a Terabyte on a Postage-Stamp Sized Chip August 5, 2013Bezos Purchases the Washington Post August 8, 2013A New Software Ecosystem to Program SyNAPSE Chips August 17, 2013The First Master's Degree Offered through Massive Open Online Courses by a Major University September 2013Robots Helping Workers on Automobile Assembly Lines September 3, 2013New Paradigm for a Regional Library September 26, 20131.2 Billion Faces of Facebook Organized on one Page October 2013Teaching Keyboard Skills in Kindergarten October 2013A Mobile, One-Armed Robot that Costs $35,000 October 10, 2013Use of the Internet by Part-Time Business Owners in 2013 October 16, 2013"As We May Type": Authoring Tools as "Machines for New Thought." October 25, 2013Launch of "The Zuckerberg Files" October 27, 2013A Multi-Media Version of an Article in the New York Times Magazine October 27, 2013The Market for Very Young Children's Books Has Grown, Partly in Reaction to eBooks October 28, 2013Zero to Eight: Children's Media Use in America 2013 October 29, 2013Amazon Launches the Kindle MatchBook Service October 31, 2013Writers Explain How New Information Technologies Have Changed Writings November 1 – November 21, 2013The First Auction of Internet Domains by a Major Auction House November 6, 2013Monkeys Use Brain-Machine Interface to Move Two Virtual Arms with their Brain Activity November 7, 2013Retail e-commerce sales expanded 15 percent in the U.S in 2012—seven times as fast as traditional retail. November 11, 2013The U.S. Postal Service Will Deliver Amazon Packages on Sundays November 12, 2013Herpes Virus and Cocaine Found on Widely Borrowed Copy of "Fifty Shades of Grey" November 14, 2013Judge Rules that Google Books Does Not Infringe Copyright November 24, 2013A Genetic Link to Skin Cancer is Found by Data Mining of Patient Records December 2013Mainstream Publisher Simon & Schuster Launches Erotica Social Media Site to Promote Books December 2013Evolution of "Apple" from Primarily a Computer Manufacturer to Primarily a Phone and Tablet Company December 2013"Top Ten New Libraries of 2013" December 1, 2013Amazon.com and UPS Envision Eventually Delivering Packages Via Drones December 4, 2013Introduction of "Arches": an Open-source, Web-based, Geospatial Information System for Cultural Heritage Inventory and Management December 4, 2013Snowden Documents Show the NSA Tracking Cellphone Locations Worldwide December 5, 2013Software Turns a Smartphone into a 3D Scanner December 9, 2013U.S. and British Spies Infiltrated "World of Warcraft" and "Second Life" December 9, 2013The National Library of Turkey Sells 147 Tons of Mostly Antiquarian Books to a "Junk Company" December 10, 2013The NSA Uses "Cookies" to Pinpoint Targets for Hacking December 20, 2013eCommerce Accounts for Only About 6% of Commerce in the U.S. December 20, 2013"TOP 10 3D Printing Stories of 2013" December 24, 2013"As New Services Track Habits, the E-Books are Reading You" December 27, 2013"The Internet Archive Console Living Room" Hosts Video Games from the '70s & '80s December 29, 2013The Growing Economic and Social Impact of Artificial Intelligence 2014The NY Times.com Introduces its "Watching" Feature, a Roll of Developing Stories from Wire Services & Other Newspapers on its Home Page January 2014Animating Classical Representational Paintings January 2014Destruction of Canadian Environmental Libraries January 1, 2014A Neural Network that Reads Millions of Street Numbers January 4, 2014The Burning of Two-Thirds of an Historic Antiquarian Bookshop in Tripoli, Lebanon January 4, 2014Trends in Reading, Book Reviewing, Publishing and Writing as of the Beginning of 2014 January 21, 2014My First Purchase of a Hardcover Book for One Cent on the Internet January 21, 2014The Ongoing Debate on the Future of Libraries at the University of California January 24, 2014Car Bombing of Police Headquarters Damages Building Housing Egyptian National Library and Museum of Islamic Art January 29, 2014"Sensory Fiction": A Kind of Virtual Reality E-Book Reading Experience January 31, 2014The New York Times Hires a Chief Data Scientist February 2014How Book Censorship Works in Jordan February 2014Animatronic Book Hive Sculpture to Commemorate the 400th Anniversary of the Bristol Central Library February 9 – March 10, 2014The KUKA KR AGILUS in a Table Tennis Match Against Timo Boll February 17, 2014"Cheap Words. Amazon is good for consumers but is it good for books?" February 17 – February 22, 2014The First Project to Investigate the Use of Instagram During a Social Upheaval February 20, 2014Publishing the Wikipedia in 1000 Physical Volumes?? February 22, 2014Growth of Audiobooks Parallels Growth of eBooks February 25, 2014Selfiecity.net. Analysis and Visualization of Thousands of Selfie Photos. . . . February 25, 2014"Unlooting the Iraq Museum": A Summary February 27, 2014PHEME: A Social Media Lie Detector February 27, 2014"The Web at 25 in the U.S." by the Pew Research Internet Project March 2, 2014In a Turnabout, A Digital Publisher Plans to Put Newsweek Magazine Back in Print March 17, 2014UC Berkeley is the First American University to Hire a Wikipedian-in-Residence March 17, 2014DeepFace, Facial Verification Software Developed at Facebook, Approaches Human Ability March 25, 2014Facebook Acquires Oculus VR, Designer and Builder of Virtual Reality Headsets April 2014Using Data-Mining of Location-Based Food and Drink Habits to Identify Cultural Boundaries April 2014"Book Traces" a Crowd-Sourced Web Project April 1, 2014Digital Humanities Quarterly to Publish Articles as Sets of Visualizations Rather than Articles in Verbal Form April 12, 2014How the Large-Scale British Printing Industry is Adapting to the Digital Age April 18, 2014Matthew Gentzkow Receives Clark Medal for Study of Media Through Big Data Sets April 20, 2014 – 2034The OED is Predicted to Disappear from Print April 22, 2014The Lely Astronaut A4 Robotic Cow Milking System May 8, 2014Amazon May Control "More than a Third" of the U.S. Book Trade May 8, 2014Visionary Plans for a New City Library in Baghdad May 15, 2014The National September 11 Memorial Museum Opens May 16, 2014The First Braille Cell Phone May 29, 2014The GDELT Project: The Largest Open-Access Database on Worldwide News Media June 2014The Enigma Database for Deciphering Difficult to Read Words in Medieval Latin Manuscripts June 6, 2014Thieves of Gutenberg Bible are Sentenced in Russia July 10, 2014A Robot Writes Out a Torah Scroll at Berlin's Jewish Museum July 14, 2014Sotheby's Officially Teams with eBay for Online Auctions July 27, 2014The Impact of Social Media on Journalism July 29, 2014Amazon States its Economic Position on the Sale of E-Books in the "Amazon/Hachette Business Interruption" July 30, 2014As E-Books Gain Market Share Traditional Roles of Publisher and Bookseller Change August 8, 2014The First Production-Scale Neuromorphic Computing Chip August 10, 2014Media Companies Spin Off Newspapers to Create Stand-Alone "Print Companies" August 14, 2014What Would George Orwell Think About the Amazon versus Hachette Dispute? August 16, 2014The Entirely Digital Main Library at Florida Polytechnic University Begins Operation August 18, 2014Putting the Footnotes in a Physical Book on the Author's Website August 27, 2014IBM Launches "Watson Discovery Advisor" to Hasten Breakthroughs in Scientific and Medical Research August 29, 2014Indexing and Sharing 2.6 Million Images from eBooks in the Internet Archive September 8, 2014A New Threat to the Beseiged Libraries and Cultural Heritage of Iraq September 13, 2014An Anthology to be Published on Paper in 2114 September 29, 2014"The Hidden Cost of E-Books at University Libraries" October 21, 2014"How Edward Snowden Changed Journalism" October 21, 2014ISIS Burns the Manuscripts and Paintings at Mar Behnam Monastery October 21, 2014"Political Polarization and Media Habits. . . How Liberals and Conservatives Keep Up With Politics" October 25, 2014ISIS Closes Mosul University Departments and Bans Text Books October 26, 2014Facebook's "News Feed" Drives Up to 20% of Traffic to News Sites October 27, 2014Three Breakthroughs that Finally Unleased AI on the World November 17, 2014Google Develops A Neural Image Caption Generator to Translate Images into Words December 10, 2014eBooks May Track Reading Habits December 15, 2014Skype Previews Skype Translator Real Time Translation Program December 17, 2014Amazon's Research in the Reading Process & its Introduction of the Ability with its E-Readers to Switch Back and Forth Between the Written and Audible Versions of a Book January 2015The First "Professional" Film Festival Film Shot on an iPhone January 8, 2015A Computer Masters Heads-up Limit Texas Hold 'em Poker January 9, 2015The Role of Technology in the Increased Violence Against Journalists January 31, 2015"Iraqi Libraries Ransacked by Islamic State in Mosul" February 26 – June 12, 2015The FCC Rules in Favor of Net Neutrality in the United States May 2015A Machine Vision Algorithm Learns to Attribute Paintings to Specific Artists August 6, 2015The New York Times Has Over One Million Paid Digital Subscribers October 1, 2015OCLC Prints the Last Library Catalogue Cards November 2, 2015Amazon.com Opens its First Physical Bookshop, "Amazon Books", in Seattle November 5, 2015The New York Times Introduces Virtual Reality into its Reporting December 11, 2015Based on a Single Example, A. I. Surpasses Human Capabilities in Reading and Copying Written Characters January 27, 2016DeepMind's AI Algorithm Masters the Ancient Game of Go February 6, 2016Mikko Hypponen Introduces and Curates "The Malware Museum" March 16, 2016
What Google's DeepMind Learned in Seoul with AlphaGo
March 21, 2016Ink Used to Write Herculaneum Papyri Contained High Metal Concentrations December 2016A Novel Method of Publishing Novels: Prerna Gupta and Parag Chordia of Telepathic Publish Books by Text Messages December 6, 2016The Influence of Social Media on the English-language Web has Surpassed that of Established Media Platforms December 7, 2016Amazon Makes First Drone Delivery: An Airdrop of Popcorn Near Cambridge, England December 13, 2016"How Russian Cyberpower Invaded the U.S."