4449 entries. 93 themes. Last updated October 1, 2014.

Timeline Outline ViewEra: 8,000 BCE - 1,000 BCE   |   Theme: All Themes

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Circa 8,000 BCE
In Mesopotamia Neolithic Tokens are Developed for "Concrete" Counting
Circa 7,000 BCEThe Earliest Known Fermented Beverage Circa 6,600 BCE
In China, Possibly the Earliest Attempt at Writing
Circa 6,200 BCE
A  wallpainting, located in Catal Hoyuk, that might be the earliest landscape painting yet discovered, or a map. (View Larger)
A Wallpainting that Could be a Landscape or a Map
Circa 6,000 BCE
Bos primigenius (auroch). (Click on image to view larger.)
Domestication of the Aurochs, Ancestors of Domestic Cattle
Circa 5,500 BCE – 5,000 BCE
Fragment of clay sieve from central Europe.  Credit: Mélanie Salque. (Click on image to view larger.)
The Earliest Evidence of Cheese-Making in Europe
Circa 4,700 BCE – 4,200 BCE
The remains of the settlement made of two-story houses near the town of Provadia. (Click on image to view larger.)
The Earliest Prehistoric Town in Europe
Circa 4,200 BCE
Balloy, Paris Basin. Plan of the central part of the settlement with  long houses of the Villeneuve-Saint-Germain culture superimposed by  graves and long barrows of the Cerny culture. (Click on image to view larger.)
The First Settlements in the Paris Basin
Circa 4,000 BCE
From National Geographic. (View Larger)
The Earliest Known Winery
Circa 3,750 BCEThe Earliest Precursors to Writing in Egypt are Rock Drawings Circa 3,600 BCE – 3,200 BCE
One Theory of the Origins of Egyptian Hieroglyphs
Circa 3,500 BCE
The Botai culture originated from the Akmola province of Kazakhstan, highlighted in green. (View Larger)
Horse Domestication Revolutionizes Transportation, Communication, and Warfare
Circa 3,500 BCE
The Areni-1 shoe. (View Larger)
The Oldest Known Well-Preserved Leather Shoe
Circa 3,500 BCE – 3,350 BCE
Bronocice clay pot showing wheeled cart. (Click on image to view larger.)
The Earliest Images of a Wheeled Vehicle
Circa 3,320 BCE – 3,150 BCE
Ivory tags from tomb U-j.
The Earliest Known Egyptian Writing
Circa 3,300 BCE
Model of Ötzi the Iceman in exhibit at the South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology.
The First Prehistoric Human Ever Found with his Everyday Clothing and Equipment
Circa 3,200 BCE – 2,900 BCE
Cuneiform Writing in Mesopotomia Begins at Uruk in Association with the…
Circa 3,200 BCE
One of the Earliest Surviving Examples of Narrative Relief Sculpture and…
Circa 3,200 BCE – 3,000 BCE
A side-view of the Warka Vase, before the invasion of Iraq. (View Larger)
One of the Earliest Surviving Works of Narrative Relief Sculpture, Looted…
Circa 3,200 BCEThe Oldest-Known List of Titles and Occupations 3,200 BCE
Seal impression with the name of Narmer from Tarkhan.
The Earliest Inscription Written in Hieratic
Circa 3,100 BCE – 3,050 BCE
The Word Bibliography is Derived from a Greek Word for Papyrus
Circa 3,100 BCE
A pictographic list of titles and professions in ancient Sumeria (top), with the scribe's signature on the reverse side (bottom.) (View Larger)
The Earliest Autograph Signatures
Circa 3,000 BCE – 1,200 BCE
Hammurabi (1792-1750 BCE), the most famous of the early Babylonian kings. (View Larger)
Education in the Bronze Age in the Middle East
Circa 2,900 BCE
The hieroglyphic name of Hemaka, highlighted in red.
The Oldest Known Papyrus Roll - Blank
Circa 2,832 BCE
Bristlecone pinetree nickednamed Methuselah.
The Oldest Non-Clonal, Acknowledged Living Organism
2,800 BCEPavlopetri: the Oldest Submerged Town Site Circa 2,620 BCE – 2,500 BCE"The Seated Scribe" or "Squatting Scribe" Circa 2,600 BCE
The world’s oldest datable mathematical table, from Shuruppag, c. 2600 BCE.  The first two columns contain identical lengths in descending order from 600 to 60 rods (c. 3600–360 m) and the final column contains the square area of their product.
The First Securely Datable Mathematical Table in World History
Circa 2,600 BCE – 2,500 BCEThe Wooden Panels of Hesy-Ra: Government Official, Physician, and Scribe Circa 2,500 BCE
The Abu Salbikh Tablet Lost in the Iraq War
Circa 2,500 BCE – 1,250 BCEThe Origins of Glassmaking Circa 2,500 BCE
Detail from wall of tomb of Prince Kaninisut showing scribes in seated position. Please click on image to view larger image.
The Sitting Posture of Egyptian Scribes and How They Stored Papyrus Rolls.
2,500 BCE – 2,250 BCE
Ebla Tablet
The Palace Archive of Ebla, Syria
Circa 2,500 BCEOne of the Oldest, Largest & Best Preserved Vessels from Antiquity 2,500 BCE
One of many papyrii found at Wadi al Jarf.  Thought to be the oldest known papyrii from Egypt.
The Earliest Known Egyptian Papyri
Circa 2,500 BCE
Photo of wharf at low tide, Wadi al-Jarf
The World's Oldest Harbor
Circa 2,400 BCE – 2,300 BCE
Pyramid texts located in Teti I's pyramid. (View Larger)
The Oldest Known Religious Texts
Circa 2,300 BCE
The Urra=hubullu, currently preserved at the Louvre Museum in Paris. (View Larger)
The Earliest Known Dictionaries
Circa 2,291 BCE – 2,254 BCE
MS 5106 of the Schoyen Collection, a brick printing block with a large loop handle from the period of Naram-Sîn. (View larger)
The Earliest Printing was Stamped into Soft Clay in Mesopotamia
2,112 BCE – 2,004 BCE
A reproduction of one of the oldest known Mesopotamian medical texts, dating from the Ur III period. (View Larger)
One of the Oldest Known Ancient Mesopotamian Medical Texts
2,100 BCE – 2,050 BCE
The Code of Ur-Nammu.
The Oldest Known Tablet Containing a Legal Code
2,031 BCE – 2,024 BCEThe Garsana Archive of Cuneiform Tablets is Returned to Iraq Circa 2,000 BCE
A section of the Prisse Papyrus, which is believed to be the earliest known document written on papyrus. (View Larger)
One of the Earliest Surviving Documents Written on Papyrus
Circa 2,000 BCE – 1,700 BCE
Sides A (left) and B (right) of the Phaistos Disc. (View Larger)
"The World's First Typewritten Document" - James Chadwick
Circa 2,000 BCE
Several problems from the Moscow Mathematical Papyrus. (View Larger)
The Older of the Two Best-Known Mathematical Papyri
Circa 2,000 BCEOne of the Earliest Medical and Mathematical Documents Circa 2,000 BCEThe Earliest Surviving Literary or Library Catalogues Circa 2,000 BCE – 1,800 BCEExecration Texts: Ceremonial Writing and Sympathetic Magic in Ancient Egypt Circa 2,000 BCEThe Earliest Representation of an Organized Fighting System Circa 1,980 BCE
Fragments of the Ramesseum Papyrus.
The Oldest Surviving Illustrated Papyrus Roll
Circa 1,900 BCE – 1,700 BCE
Plimpton 322 (View Larger)
The Most Famous Document of Babylonian Mathematics
Circa 1,900 BCE – 1,700 BCE
The obverse and reverse sides of YBC 7289. Images by Image by West Semitic Research.(View Larger)
Illustrating the Pythagorean Theorem and the Square Root of Two
Circa 1,900 BCE – 700 BCEProbably the Most Ancient Surviving Fermented Beverages Circa 1,900 BCE – 1,700 BCEDiscovery of the "Ark Tablet": Decoding the Story of the Flood Circa 1,800 BCE
The Oldest Known Medical Papyrus
1,800 BCE – 1,600 BCE
YBC 7287, a Babylonian mathematical tablet preserved at Yale, circa 1800-1600 B.C.E. (View Larger)
Thousands of Cuneiform Tablets Document Babylonian Mathematics
Circa 1,800 BCEProbably the Earliest Surviving Recipe for Making Beer Circa 1,800 BCE – 1,600 BCEAncient Babylonian Algorithms: The Earliest Programs Circa 1,760 BCE
The upper part of the stele containing the Code of Hammurabi. (View Larger)
The Code of Hammurabi
Circa 1,700 BCE
YBC 4644, one of three tablets in Yale's collection inscribed with ancient recipes.
The Earliest Surviving Recipes
Circa 1,700 BCE – 1,100 BCEThe Rigveda Circa 1,650 BCE
The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus. (View Larger)
“Accurate Reckoning for Inquiring into Things, and the Knowledge of All…
Circa 1,600 BCE
The Oldest Surgical Treatise
Circa 1,600 BCE
Sumerian medical tablet (2400 BC), ancient city of Nippur.  Lists 15 prescriptions used by a pharmacist.  Library of Ashurbanipal.
The Largest Surviving Medical Treatise from Ancient Mesopotamia
1,600 BCE
The Nebra Sky Disk. (View Larger)
The Nebra Sky Disk
Circa 1,550 BCE
Papyrus Ebers (View Larger)
The Most Extensive Record of Ancient Egyptian Medicine
Circa 1,550 BCE – 1450
Two Egyptian scribal palettes preserved in the British Museum. (View Larger)
Egyptian Scribal Palettes with Ink Wells and Brushes
Circa 1,550 BCE – 50 BCE
Detail from the Papyrus of Ani, showing Ani and his wife entering at left.  Please click to see complete image.
In Ancient Egypt Only the "Book of the Dead" Papyri Were Commercially Produced
Circa 1,500 BCE
EA 5645 of the British Museum: the Words of Khakheperresoneb written on a wooden writing board. (View Larger)
A Wooden Writing Board Containing Text of the Words of Khakheperresoneb
Circa 1,500 BCEThe Proto-Sinaitic Inscriptions, the Earliest Evidence for Alphabetic Writing 1,500 BCE – 300 BCESurvey of Ancient Libraries and Archives in the Near East Circa 1,490 BCE – 1,390 BCEOne of the Earliest Known Examples of Writing in Europe Circa 1,450 BCE
An ancient Egyptian wooden drawing board inscribed with a picture of Thutmose III. It is preserved in the British Library as EA 5645. (View Larger)
Wooden Drawing Board with a figure of Thutmose III
Circa 1,450 BCE – 1953The Decipherment of Linear B 1,450 BCE – 1,050 BCE
The Ostracon from ‘Izbet Sartah (1200–1000 BCE) showing characters of the Proto-Canaanite alphabet.
The Proto-Canaanite Alphabet
1,417 BCE – 1,379 BCEThe Oldest Surviving Water Clock or Clepsydra Circa 1,400 BCE
Collection catalogue tablet from the Hattusas Palace Archives. Hattusa, Turkey
 
The Earliest Surviving Detailed Bibliographical Entries
1,391 BCE – 1,353 BCEThe Earliest Bookplates, or Ex-Libris 1,375 BCEThe Uluburun Shipwreck Circa 1,360 BCE – 1,330 BCE
ME E29785 of the British Museum: A letter from Burnaburiash, a king of the Kassite dynasty of Babylonia, to Amenhotep IV. The tablet is one of the Amarna Letters. (View Larger)
Archive of Egyptian Diplomatic Correspondence Written in the Diplomatic…
Circa 1,300 BCE – 1,000 BCE
One of the twelve tablets--of the 1200 discovered by Austen Henry Layard in Ninveh--upon which the Epic of Gilgamesh was recorded. (View larger)
The Epic of Gilgamesh, Probable Source of Aspects of Biblical and Homeric…
Circa 1,292 BCE – 1,069 BCE
A self-portrait of the scribe Sesh, arms raised in the presentation of a papyrus scroll and possibly a writing palette. Preserved in the Schoyen Collection as MS 1695. (View Larger)
Self-Portrait of an Egyptian Scribe with his Autograph Signature
Circa 1,275 BCE – 1,250 BCE
Papyrus from the Book of the Dead of Ani.
The Papyrus of Ani
1,250 BCE – 1,100 BCEAnalysis of Pollen Grains Proves that Drought Caused the Collapse of Civilization in the Soutern Levant 1,209 BCE – 1,208 BCE
The Merneptah Stele (View Larger)
The Only Ancient Egyptian Document that Mentions Israel
Circa 1,200 BCE – 1,050 BCE
The Earliest Chinese Inscriptions that are Indisputably Writing
1,200 BCE
The Chester Beatty Medical Papyrus. (View Larger)
Diseases of the Anus and Headaches
1,200 BCE – 1453
Tyrian Purple.
Imperial Purple Was First Produced by the Phoenicians
Circa 1,200 BCE – 1,045 BCE
A bronze guang, or ritualistic wine vessel, of the Shang dynasty. (View Larger)
The Earliest Chinese Inscriptions in Bronze
Circa 1,186 BCE – 1,155 BCE
A papyrus of the 'Discourse of the Gods' section of the Great Harris Papyrus, showing Ramesses III before the Triad of Thebes. (View Larger)
The Longest Known Egyptian Papyrus
Circa 1,000 BCE
The Oldest Known Evidence of the Phoenician Alphabet
Circa 1,000 BCE
A shard of ancient pottery found in the Elah Fortress, bearing Proto-Canaanite script which might compose the earliest known Hebrew inscription. (View Larger)
Possibly the Earliest Hebrew Inscription