Portrait of Jacquard woven by the Jacquard loom in 1839. This woven silk portrait of the inventor was based on a painting by Claude Bonnefond (1796–1860) commissioned by the city of Lyon in 1831. The Lyon manufacturer Didier, Petit et Cie ordered the silk version from weaver Michel-Marie Carquillat, a specialist in this kind of work. Producing the image required 24,000 punched cards. Each card had over 1,000 hole positions. "The delicate shading, crafted shadows and fine resolution of the Jacquard portrait challenged existing notions that machines were incapable of subtlety. Gradations of shading were surely a matter of artistic taste rather than the province of machinery, and the portrait blurred the clear lines between industrial production and the arts."