A: Columbia, Missouri, United States
In 2005 The National Science Foundation funded research headed by Gabor Forgacs at the University of Missouri-Columbia on what was called "Organ Printing," to "further advance our understanding of self-assembly during the organization of cells and tissues into functional organ modules."
From ABC News 2-10-2006:
"In what could be the first step toward human immortality, scientists say they've found a way to do all of these things and more with the use of a technology found in many American homes: an ink-jet printer.
"Researchers around the world say that by using the technology, they can actually 'print' living human tissue and one day will be able to print entire organs.
" 'The promise of tissue engineering and the promise of 'organ printing' is very clear: We want to print living, three-dimensional human organs,' Dr. Vladimir Mironov said. 'That's our goal, and that's our mission.' "
"Though the field is young, it already has a multitude of names.
" 'Some people call this 'bio-printing.' Some people call this 'organ printing.' Some people call this 'computer-aided tissue engineering.' Some people call this 'bio-manufacturing,' said Mironov, associate professor at the Medical University of South Carolina and one of the leading researchers in the field."