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A: Sankt-Peterburg, Russia

Moritz von Jacobi Invents Electrotyping

Lithographed portrait of Moritz von Jacobi (1856)

Lithographed portrait of Moritz von Jacobi (1856)

In 1838 Moritz von Jacobi in Saint Petersburg invented electrotyping, a chemical method of forming metal parts that exactly reproduce a model. The electrotype process had applications in a wide variety of fields, including the process of making printing plates by electroplating since it produced an exact facsimile of any object with an irregular surface, such as an engraved steel or copper plate, a woodcut, or a forme of set-up type. 

The ability to duplicate woodcuts precisely made it possible for publishers to sell copies of images to other publishers, creating a new source of revenue.

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