On June 27, 1994 cognitive scientist Stevan Harnad
presented at the 1994 Network Services Conference in London and posted on the Internet what he called the Subversive Proposal
, calling on all authors of "esoteric" research writings to archive their articles for free for everyone online (in anonymous FTP
archives or websites). This proposal initiated a series of online exchanges, many of which were collected and published as a book in 1995, edited by A S. Okerson & J. J. O'Donnell entitled Scholarly Journals at the Crossroads: A Subversive Proposal for Electronic Publishing
(Washington, D.C.: Association of Research Libraries, 1995).
The 1995 book led to the creation in 1997 of Cogprints
, an open access
archive for self-archived articles in the cognitive sciences, and in 1998 to the creation of the American Scientist Open Access Forum
. That forum was initially called the "September98 Forum"
until the Budapest Open Access Initiative
(BOAI) released a statement of principles relating to open access to research literature to the public on February 14, 2002. In that process BOAI coined the term "Open Access".