In 1962 historian, sociologist, and philosopher of science Thomas S. Kuhn
published The Structure of Scientific Revolutions
. The first edition was issued as Vol. 2, Number 2, of the International Encyclopedia of Unified Science
by the University of Chicago Press.
Among the most influential single works in the history of science published in the 20th century, in this work Kuhn promoted the concept of paradigm
as a set of practices that define a scientific discipline at a particular period of time, or "universally recognized scientific achievements that, for a time, provide model problems and solutions for a community of practitioners,
- what is to be observed and scrutinized
- the kind of questions that are supposed to be asked and probed for answers in relation to this subject
- how these questions are to be structured
- what predictions made by the primary theory within the discipline
- how the results of scientific investigations should be interpreted
- how an experiment is to be conducted, and what equipment is available to conduct the experiment."